Typically, glucose passes through the kidney filter, called glomeruli.However, despite this, in healthy people is completely absorbed into the blood in the renal tubules.Thus, it can be concluded that glucose in healthy persons can not be present in urine. Or rather it is present in a small amount of glucose, which is the usual laboratory tests, such as biochemical or urinalysis can not identify.
Often health is determined by the amount of glucose in the blood.The norm of this indicator is the so-called threshold from 8.8 to 9.9 mmol / L.If the blood sugar level rises, the renal tubules become unable to absorb an amount of urine glucose in blood.A consequence of this process is the emergence of the sugar in the urine, which is called medical glycosuria.The threshold in the presence of blood sugar gradually decreases with age, and this figure may become smaller due to a variety of kidney diseases.
That is why the presence of sugar in the urine can be triggered by an increase in blood sugar leve
There are many reasons why you may receive glucose in the urine sample.One such reason is diabetes.In this case, the occurrence of diabetic urine sugar occurs at a rather low level of blood sugar.Most often this occurs when insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.All is that the absorption of sugar in the blood in the renal tubules is possible only when it fosforirovanii enzyme called hexokinase.However, when this enzyme is activated by diabetes using insulin.That is why the renal threshold for diabetes of the first type below normal.Furthermore, in the development of sclerotic processes in kidney tissues is a high level of glucose in the blood, and thus will not be detected in urine.
also the appearance of sugar in the urine may occur as a result of acute pancreatitis.Besides, several other diseases can cause disease appearance of glucose in urine.For example, brain tumor, meningitis, traumatic brain injury, encephalitis or hemorrhagic stroke may lead to glucosuria central genesis.Feverish glucosuria cause diseases that are accompanied by fever.When the adrenaline, glucocorticoid hormones, thyroxine or growth hormone appears endocrine glycosuria.In addition, there is also a toxic glycosuria that occurs in cases of poisoning by morphine, strychnine, chloroform and phosphorus.Due to lower the threshold of developing kidney renal glycosuria.
addition to such varieties also distinguish primary and secondary glucosuria.Primary occurs in the absence of glucose or its slight decrease.Secondary develops in diseases such as the kidney nephrosis, chronic pyelonephritis, acute renal failure and Gierke disease.
reading glucose in the urine is very important because it may indicate the development of quite serious diseases.Therefore, if the analysis of urine you find sugars, you should immediately contact the experts.
Causes of glucose in the urine
As already known, the reasons for the emergence of the sugar in the urine may be a different disease.But the very first causes of this phenomenon is considered to increase the concentration of sugar in the blood, a violation of the filtering process in the kidneys, as well as the delay in the return of sugar absorption in the renal tubules.
to more accurately identify the most common causes of determination of glucose in the urine, it is necessary to name diseases that affect her appearance.This is primarily diabetes, hyperthyroidism, severe liver disease and acute poisoning by carbon monoxide, phosphorus, morphine and chloroform.In addition to these reasons, and also include stimulation of the central nervous system of traumatic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage, acute encephalitis and seizures.Of course, the causes include abnormalities and renal tubules and glomeruli, among which are acute infectious diseases, glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis.
procedure for determining the presence of sugar in the urine
In order to investigate the sugar in the urine, should first morning urine to collect at least one hundred and fifty milliliters into a glass pot clean and dry.Then it is necessary to deliver the pot to the laboratory under the lid closed.Before collecting the urine should be thoroughly wash the perineum with warm water using a neutral soap.Cases that the urine can get such micro-organisms that break down glucose very quickly.That's why one should try to urine is delivered to the laboratory, it has been without impurities.In addition, try to bring the urine no later than six hours after collection.
sometimes necessary to hand over the analysis of daily urine.It is a collection of urine in a dry dark darkened glass pot during the day.This analysis provides a more accurate and comprehensive information about the amount of sugar in urine.However, for the determination of glucose in urine in the laboratory of the total number of select only one hundred and fifty milliliters, which further investigated.
In our time, there are other methods for determining the sugar in urine.For example, it may be solutions or test strips.Such methods are qualitative procedures.However, there are also quantitative methods that determine and calculate the amount of glucose in urine.