In today's world, more than 300 thousand of drugs are available to physicians.However, among this variety are worthy of mention are ten of them, due to which the medicine has taken a step forward.
- 1 drug №1: opium
- 2 drug №2: salvarsan
- 3 preparation number 3: the vaccine against smallpox
- 4 preparation number 4aspirin
- 5 preparation number 5: vitamins
- 6 preparation number 6: penicillin
- 7 drug №7: insulin
- 8 preparation number 8: Live
- 9 number 9 drug: cocaine
- 10 preparation number 10: Enovid
drug №1: opium
opium, which is dried in a special way the juice of unripe headspoppy, one of the first strong painkillers.Its medicinal properties have been known to doctors in ancient Greece and Rome, ancient China and India, to use it to reduce pain tincture.In 1806, morphine was created by a young chemist Friedrich Sertyurnerom by isolation of opium alkaloids. discovery of morphine and a syringe invention in 1853, showed to the world of
drug №2: salvarsan
In 1907, Austrian physician Paul Ehrlich was synthesized drug for the treatment of syphilis - salvarsan, which quickly spread throughout the world. It happened the emergence of chemotherapy - a method of treatment using chemicals, specially devised to combat specific diseases.Subsequently chemotherapy drugs have been synthesized in bulk quantities.
preparation number 3: the vaccine against smallpox
inventor of the first vaccine in the world and has become the method of vaccination Edward Jenner, a doctor from England .In 1796 he introduced the child is 8 years old, who was called James Phipps, the liquid contained in the bubbles with hands milkmaids, infected with cowpox.Then after 1.5 months the doctor brought the boy is another substance from a vial of smallpox patient.The child remained healthy.In Russia, the first such vaccination made in 1801 to the kid, whose name was Anton Petrov.Then, thanks to the invention of Jenner vaccinated against other diseases have been established: hepatitis B, diphtheria, whooping cough, rubella, tetanus, etc. In the United States in 2007 drug against cancer was first made :. A vaccine that can prevent the form that causes papilloma virushuman.
preparation number 4: aspirin
Long since people know that willow bark helps to bring down the fever.This was due to its content of salicylate (salicylic acid salt).In 1897, German chemist Felix Hoffman was chemically synthesized acetylsalicylic acid.In the future, based on it were created new NSAIDs . According to WHO, the acid and its analogs (aspirin, pridol and so on.) For many years occupied a leading place among the ten most used in the world drugs.In recent years, scientists have found that when used in low doses of aspirin prevents heart attacks, strokes, thrombosis and many other diseases.
preparation number 5: vitamins
first vitamin B1 was isolated by the Polish chemist Casimir Funk from the husk of rice.In today's world there are more than 20 vitamins, which are part of enzymes (C, B, PP) and cell membranes (A, D, E, K), are actively involved in all reactions in the body.They are used to treat diseases such as scurvy, rickets, hypovitaminosis, for the prevention of many diseases and for the rehabilitation of people.
drug is number 6: penicillin
Due to the discovery of antibiotics to fight the infection occurred a coup.This event was carried out in 1929 by Professor Alexander Fleming, who discovered that green mold allocates special substance to inhibit the growth of microbes.He named it penicillin and isolated in pure form.In 1940, scientists Ernst Chain and Howard Florey antibiotic was obtained in a form fit for application in practice.In the USSR, this substance could get Microbiologist Zinaida Yermolyeva in 1942.Doubtless is the fact that the discovery of antibacterial drugs has revolutionized medicine.Preparation of penicillin, the very first of them was the beginning of a new era in medical history.At the present time, pharmacologists synthesized dozens of new types of drugs that are able to win a lot of infections. Until now, alternative antibiotics in medicine has not appeared.
drug №7: insulin
Approximately 15 million inhabitants of the earth diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.The only way out for them - a lifelong insulin injections.This drug was first discovered by Russian scientist Leonid Sobolev, who in 1901 proved experimentally the fact of isolation of pancreatic islets cells, the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels, and found ways to obtain it.In 1921, Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best Insulin was obtained from the dog's cancer.At the beginning of 1922 the drug was first tested on a 14 year old patient who is seriously ill with diabetes, who helped cure.At the end of 1922 first appeared on the insulin drug market, and very quickly it began to produce in large quantities.In 1923, for drug discovery scientists received the Nobel Prize.It is in 1958 has been received and Briton Frederick Sanger, because he identified a pattern sequence of amino acids that make up insulin molecule.And now for many patients insulin preparations are the only way to survive.
preparation number 8: Live
This surgery is not possible without anesthesia.And one day, at the opening of the ether and nitrous oxide, was made a giant leap ahead of science.For the first time on the narcotic effect of ether said even in 1525, the famous physician Paracelsus.In 1797, the analgesic effect of nitrous oxide, the British chemist Humphry Davy was discovered, which he called "laughing gas."Even then, scientists assumed that the substance can be used in surgery for pain relief.Another Briton in 1818 was tested soporific effect of ether vapor, and published a paper on this topic.Happy birth of anesthesiologists as a science is considered to be 16 October 1846.That same day, at the hospital in Boston for the first time in the world we carried out an operation with the participation of an anesthesiologist.In Russia, the first operation under general anesthesia with ether was carried out Fedor Inozemtsev February 7, 1847 Then, 10 days later the surgeon Pirogov first time under anesthesia was removed breast cancer in women.Since then the widespread application of anesthesia started worldwide.In September 1847 the war in Dagestan, the cake for 5 days spent about 100 operations using ether anesthesia in a field hospital.
Currently, anesthesia equipment and uses the latest sophisticated equipment.However, the overall method has remained exactly the same principle as the one and a half centuries ago: immersion in chemical sleep.Attempts to create a fundamentally different way of anesthesia remain unsuccessful.
number 9 drug: cocaine
As surgery can not be imagined without anesthesia, as medicine and can not imagine without cocaine.That this substance is the main component of the drug for local anesthesia (novocaine, tetracaine, trimekaina, lidocaine, etc.), Without the use of which would not exist modern dentistry, surgery, gynecology, and all other areas of medicine.
Kok was opened by the conquistadors and later travelers visiting South America.They drew attention to the fact that Aboriginal people are constantly chewing leaves of the plant called coca, which helps them to easily transfer fatigue and pain.In 1860 the chemist Albert Niemann for the first time identified the main active component of these leaves, which turned out to be an alkaloid called cocaine.In 1879, St. Petersburg, Professor Vasily Anrep first conducted a study of cocaine properties and suggested its use as a local anesthetic.In 1890, German surgeon Carl Schleich opened a modern method of local anesthesia.Through numerous experiments, he created lasting anesthetic by adding cocaine to a 0.05% solution of sodium chloride, which eventually led to the emergence of pain medication.And that was the most important, the drug could be stored in bottles for a long time.In April 1892 at the Surgical Congress about his discovery of a new technique of local anesthesia Schleich told colleagues.In 1905 Alfreyd Eichhorn initiated a new stage in the development of anesthesia, when I got Novocain.This drug had a 15-fold lower level of toxicity, unlike cocaine, and a pronounced analgesic effect, for which he quickly got approval from the experts.The discovery of drugs for general anesthesia and local anesthesia resulted in a struggle for.All further achievements in this direction were the only additions to the already opened.
preparation number 10: Enovid
In the past, all the standard protection methods (. Condom, the cap, toothpaste, coitus interruptus, etc.) were ineffective, as the pregnancy advanced in 20% of cases.The world has changed after the creation of the first oral contraceptive.
has long been aware of the property hormones influence ovulation offensive.In 1931 the Austrian Ludwig Haberlandt suggested their use in women for the prevention of pregnancy.extract from the ovaries of pigs was prepared, which was named "infekundin" and that for industrial production become too expensive.In 1944 synthesized the first artificial progesterone.After 10 years, the American biologist Gregory Pincus created the first contraceptive pill.In 1960, she appeared in pharmacies under the name "Enovid".The invention of oral contraception made it possible to solve the problem of unwanted pregnancies and reduce the number of gynecological pathologies and mortality in children.