The human digestive system is designed to perform two main functions: splitting and transformation of food into nutrients required for the body's vital functions, and removal of the end products of the process.
In this system combined the two functions of the various organs that interact and work as a whole: the mouth, stomach, intestines (small and large its departments), liver, gall bladder, pancreas.We'll tell you about some facts and features of the work of this complex, which may surprise you.
- 1 Fact 1: to ensure that the food hit the stomach, does not require the impact of gravitational forces
- 2 Fact 2: effects of drugs for constipation is similar to the process of digestion
- 3 Fact3: a significant part of the food eaten is subjected to digestion outside the cavity of the stomach
- 4 fact 4: The small intestine has a very large surface
- 5 fact 5: The structure of the digestive system, especially the stomach varies in different animals
- 6 fact 6: an unpleasant odor of intestinal gas due to the work of bacteria
- 7 fact 7: in your digestive tract may cause cancer
- 8 fact 8: look inside the stomach cavity of the scientists helped swallowers of swords
- 9 fact 9: in the study of processes of digestion scientists helped the man with the hole in his stomach
- 10 fact 10: The stomach needs protection from their own enzymes
- 11 fact 11: nearly a hundred years, doctors have misconceptions about the causes of peptic ulcer disease
- 12 fact 12: The sounds in the stomach are heard not only when a person is hungry
fact 1: to ensure that the food hit the stomach, does not require the impact of gravitational forces
during meals, after something you ate, the product falls from the mouth into the esophagus and thence to the stomach.The movement of food bolus is not a simple fall, as many of you might find, and more difficult, with the help of the muscles that are available in the esophageal wall. These muscles are in the process of eating is in constant motion: contracting and relaxing, they cause a wavelike movement of the esophagus (called peristalsis), by which happens push food down into the stomach. Through this process of peristalsis, the food in any case you will get eaten into the cavity of the stomach, even if you have, head bowed down.
Fact 2: effects of drugs for constipation is similar to the process of digestion
Laxatives medications exert their effects via their member of various enzymes, among which are amylase, lipase and protease .These substances also produce and organs of the digestive system of the person .In the process of digestion of food enzymes used to recycle food products: proteins are cleaved using proteases, carbohydrates - amylases and fats are digested by the action of lipase.
Fact 3: a significant part of the food eaten is subjected to digestion gastric cavity
Most people believe that the stomach is an organ that performs basic functions human digestive system. and give it central importance in the digestion of food. Stomach and really plays a big role in the digestive process by performing mechanical work longer: take a large amount of food, mix it with gastric juice .
Under the influence of secretions produced by this body, there is a splitting of a complex of gastric contents into simpler components, to the proteins, fats and carbohydrates.The resulting mass is called chyme.This completes the processing of food in the stomach and there is virtually completed feed mixture advance further along the gastrointestinal tract.
absorption of nutrients in the microvilli almost directly into the stomach occurs digest only a small part of the stomach contents.Since there is practically no contact for processing products directly into the bloodstream, they must have a molecular size and their disintegration to such an extent in the stomach.This is done in the following stages of the digestive process, downstream of food throughout the small intestine, the length of which is more than 60% of the size of the gastrointestinal tract.
small intestine produces a plurality of enzymes, processing chyme to molecules, which are then fed to the microvilli of the mucosa and enter the blood stream.
Fact 4: The small intestine has a very large surface
small intestine in the length of almost seven meters and a width of about 2.5 cm in diameter.By simple mathematical calculation is easy to calculate that its surface area must be less than 1.7 m ?.In reality, small intestine area of approximately 250 m2, which equals the size of a tennis court.
This is due to anatomical features inherent to the small intestine, which contribute to an increase in the area of its surface .intestinal wall has numerous, similar to fingers, mucosal folds, called villi.They, in turn, consist of microvilli, which occurs in the suction process.These features are aimed at improving the nutrient uptake mechanism substances.
Fact 5: structure of the digestive system organs , especially the stomach, is different in different animals
stomach, as the body is an essential part of the digestive tract.However, its structure differs depending on the type of animal.Some of them have the stomach has several compartments, such as four-building in ruminants: cows, deer, giraffes - it helps to better digest food of plant origin.In other animals (seahorse, platypus, etc.). In principle there is no stomach, and the food comes from the mass of the esophagus directly into the intestine.
Fact 6: an unpleasant odor of intestinal gas due to the work of bacteria
air in the intestine consists of a combination of gases, ingested in food process and those that result from the activities of the colonies of microbes that colonize the gastrointestinal tract . digestive system caused by a variety of microorganisms that contribute to the splitting of food, and at the same time producing methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and which is due to unpleasant odor.
Fact 7: in your digestive tract may cause
cancer Currently, cancers of the gastrointestinal tract make up a large percentage among all tumor pathology.And more than half of cases end fatally.Among them are cancers of the esophagus, cancer of the stomach, colon and rectum.Mortality from colo-rectal cancer is the second-largest, behind only lung cancer.
Fact 8: look inside the stomach cavity helped scientists swallowers of swords
study of the inner surface of the stomach is carried out using a special tool - the endoscope.The first such device, called laytleyter, was developed in the early 19th century by the German physician Philipp Bozzini.The device was very primitive, and its main function was the inspection of certain areas of the body (ear, nose, urethra).After 50 years, the French surgeon Jean Antoine Desormes was invented endoscope, which is intended for the study of the bladder and urinary tract.In 1868 the German physician Adolf Kussmaul this instrument was used to examine the human stomach.However, the endoscope is different from modern devices inflexible and difficult to manage.And in order to carry out the experiment, experience swallowers of swords was used that could easily swallow a long sword, and that looked like the first endoscope.
Fact 9: the study of the digestive process has helped scientists to people with a hole in the stomach
In 1822, 19-year-old Alexis St. Martin was injured in hunting firearms and cured Army surgeon William Beaumont.However, the young man after treatment remains a hole in the abdomen (fistula), which allowed for examination of the stomach in new ways.Over the next ten years, Beaumont experimented over the stomach of St. Martin, spent about 240 studies in which food is introduced directly into the stomach.Thanks to this important conclusions were that the impact on digestion and high temperature that is needed for processing the food hydrochloric acid.
Fact 10: The stomach needs protection from their own enzymes
Every day, more than two liters of hydrochloric acid secreted by the cells of the inner membrane of the stomach, which contributes to the destruction of microorganisms and helps in the digestion of food.This substance is toxic enough, in the environment it is used for domestic purposes and is a member of various tools to remove rust from surfaces, cleaning preparations, oxidants for plumbing.In order to secure protection and not destroyed, the stomach has a coating on the walls of a thick slime layer which continuously (every two weeks) is updated.
Fact 11: nearly a hundred years, doctors have misconceptions about the causes of peptic ulcer disease
When ulcers on the mucous membrane of the stomach and the small intestine (duodenum often in its department) there are sores.According to scientific data, every year this pathology affects about fifty million people.For a long time due to illness believed stress and spicy food, as very often the patients complained of the emergence of pain in the stomach just after errors in food.With this in mind, nearly a century ulcer treated appointment light meals and rest.However, in 1882, Australian scientists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, it was found that the cause of ulcers actually lies in the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori, which affects the inner membrane of the stomach wall.Therefore, other treatment ulcers were invited to physicians - with the help of antibacterial drugs, for which the scientists the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 2005.
Fact 12: The sounds in the stomach are heard not only when a person is hungry
sounds that are often heard from the stomach and intestines, occur in the process of peristalsis, when there is the passage of nutrients, gases and liquid through the digestivetract.And it shows the normal process of digestion.The sound becomes loud when the gastrointestinal tract becomes empty, since it becomes nothing muffle.After all, despite the lack of food in the stomach, the muscles of the digestive system is still shrinking and motility performed.Why is this happening?After entering the stomach contents into the small intestine, the digestive tract of the brain signals, and that it responds by sending the signal to the muscles to enhance peristalsis.Acronyms muscles need to from the stomach all the food is gone.The result is the appearance of false signals that the body needs nutrients.