Ascariasis - human and animal disease caused by parasitic worms that enter the body along with the food.The main causative agent is ascaris lumbricoides (Ascaris) - dioecious round worm reaches a length of 40 cm and a parasite in the human intestine.The female roundworm lays up to 200,000 eggs per day, which at the optimal temperature conditions mature and become invasive, that is capable of causing disease in humans.
main source of infection of ascariasis are pets - dogs and cats.The human body gets matured egg with unwashed vegetables or fruit, or as a result of communication with pets.The process of the emergence of the larvae caught in the human intestine eggs takes hours.Larvae of Ascaris are very mobile and quickly spread to the lungs, liver, bronchi, gastrointestinal tract, the bloodstream.
whole period of larval migration lasts no more than 14 days and ends in the small intestine, where the roundworm develop into an adult and start to actively proliferate.Man is the ultimate bearer
Expert opinion: The parasite is nothing of the walls does not suck.It feeds on substances that are found in the intestinal lumen and secreted to the intestinal walls.
The clinical picture of the disease was isolated early and chronic phases.For the early phase is characterized by the following main symptoms:
- general malaise, the appearance of weakness;
- Increased lymph nodes;
- cough with phlegm, the appearance of shortness of breath, shortness of breath;
- increase in temperature;
- Increasing the size of the liver, sometimes the spleen;
In young children against the background of an early stage of ascariasis may be pneumonia resulting in death.The chronic form of the disease makes itself felt the presence of the following symptoms:
- appearance of pain in the abdomen;
- Decreased appetite;
- disorder chair;
- memory loss, insomnia;
- Epileptiform cramps;
- appearance of sensations of movement in the intestines.
In complicated forms of the disease associated with the migration of parasites in the opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts, there may be jaundice, acute pancreatitis, liver abscess, intestinal obstruction.Penetration of Ascaris larvae in the lungs can be accompanied by severe pneumonia, severe bleeding caused by the rupture of pulmonary capillaries.In some patients during migration of the larvae observed abnormal liver function and the cardiovascular system.
The main symptoms in children are added, as a rule, headaches, nervousness, feeling unwell, decreased intelligence, night terrors, there is anemia.
In the early stages of the disease diagnosis is based on clinical and epidemiological data.Confirmation of the diagnosis is the detection of roundworm larvae in the sputum by coughing patient.When the first suspected ascariasis conducted a study of patient feces.The presence of worm larvae in the body can also be determined by conducting laboratory analysis of the blood of the patient.
Treatment of ascariasis
presence of Ascaris in the human body is able to cause enormous harm to almost all of his internal organs, causing serious consequences, sometimes leading to death.Therefore, this disease requires mandatory medical treatment.By anthelmintic drugs commonly prescribed to get rid of Ascaris are: pyrantel, mebendazole, levamisole, piperazine, naftamon, medamin.
Medamin has a high anthelmintic activity is produced in the form of tablets.This drug is assigned a doctor in establishing an accurate diagnosis.Side effects medamina include: weakness, slight nausea, and allergic rashes.Contraindications to the use is individual intolerance of some components of the drug, pregnancy.
Naftamon, also available in tablet form, contributes to the rapid removal of worms from the patient.Side effects of the drug, manifested in the form of a chair, or nausea, go after its cancellation.Tablets naftamona treatment is from three to five days (depending on the patient's age and severity of disease).The drug is not indicated for liver function abnormalities.
Pyrantel - drug having anthelmintic activity, contributes to the destruction of helminth eggs, as well as the excretion of adults.Appointed in various forms of infestations, including ascariasis.It is produced in the form of tablets or suspensions.The daily dose depends on the individual patient and the stage of disease development.Among the side effects observed: nausea, headache, insomnia, dizziness, hearing loss, diarrhea.During pregnancy, pyrantel treatment is carried out under the strict supervision of a specialist.
Piperazine is the safest drug for the treatment of ascariasis, and other parasitic diseases, has a devastating effect on the mature individuals of both sexes of Ascaris.This preparation may be assigned during pregnancy and lactation.Side effects such as nausea, muscle and headaches rarely observed.The drug has low toxicity and therefore is often administered to treat children ascariasis.One course of treatment is two days.
Ascariasis is the most common parasitic disease of humans and animals.Its prevention includes careful observance of the basic rules of personal hygiene before eating, after work in the garden, toilet, communicating with pets.Be aware that ascariasis is very contagious, so if one family member has been put such a diagnosis, it is recommended to pass a preventive treatment to all members of the household.The effectiveness of treatment is estimated at the time re-analysis of 14 days after the end of treatment.