Science magazine named the invention of the method of immunotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumors, the major scientific achievement.

Content

  • 1 principle of the new method
  • 2 What is a vaccine?
  • 3 Created drugs
  • 4 drug against brain cancer
  • 5 Other new ways to treat cancer

principle of the new method

essence of this method lies in the fact that there is infusion of the human immune system to fight cancers .A practical embodiment of this latest achievement was the creation of therapeutic vaccines, have anti-cancer activity.A special feature of these compounds is that their administration is not prophylactic (to protect against infection), and they have entered the patient to the patient, in order to strengthen his immune system, and help her overcome the disease.

What is a vaccine?

vaccine (from the Latin vacca, which means cow) called a medical drug that is intended for the formation of resistance to infectious diseases.The basis f

or the manufacture of this product are attenuated or killed microorganisms, their metabolic products.Also, the vaccine can be produced using the antigens created by chemical means or by genetic engineering.The vaccine is carried out to activate the adaptive immune response, which formation is due to formation of specialized memory in the body cells.Next, the subsequent infection by the same agent, causes the development of a more stable response of the immune system.For the production of these preparations are used strains of microorganisms that are killed or weakened, fragments of cells, as well as toxoids (medicaments which are made of the toxin does not have strong toxic properties, but capable of stimulating the production of antibodies to this toxin).

Vaccines come in different forms.By the number of pathogens:

  • single vaccines - a drug, in which structure there is only one pathogen;
  • polio - is composed of more than one pathogen and produces immunity to several diseases.

Depending on the type of the original strain isolated vaccine: cancer cell

  • Live - is the one which is based on micro-organisms harmless colony with a reception (avirulent).After administration of a drug such microbial growth occurs, which causes the development of the infection process.Most of vaccinated people carry the infection without marked clinical signs, and the end result will be the formation they are fairly stable immunity.An example is the vaccine against rubella, tuberculosis, measles;
  • corpuscular.In its structure contains strains of bacteria that are killed or weakened.Killing them is carried out by heat treatment or by using chemical agents (phenol, acetone);
  • Chemicals - is the one that is created using parts of antigens that are extracted from the germ cells.The vaccine contains, as a rule, the components determining the immunogenicity of the main microbe;
  • recombinant vaccine.When it was created using genetic engineering technology, embedding the genome of the microorganism into the yeast cell and causing it to produce the antigen.Then, yeast is cultured, that the necessary antigen produced, its purification and vaccine preparation.

Created drugs

These immune preparations have already been created and are being tested in clinical practice.These include vaccine against cancer with double action, which was called Pexa-Vec. Its main effect is that it provides the simultaneous destruction of malignant tumor cells and thus stimulates production of specific immunoglobulins (antibodies) against antigens, which are on the surface of cancer cells.

Established new vaccine - a drug already on the fourth generation of the account, the production of which as a basis has been used attenuated vaccinia virus, which is subjected to modern genetic modification.The virus after conversion has acquired the ability to reproduce only in malignant cells.bottle addition, its structure included the gene responsible for the production of a protein that stimulates the immune system and immune response.

therapeutic effect of this latest vaccine has been studied in clinical trials involving three people.The first patient, who was ill renal cell malignancy, on the background of vaccine lived for six years and four months.The second patient's vaccine has been used for the treatment of small cell lung cancers, with his life could be extended to two years.A third patient with melanoma life expectancy on the background of immunotherapy was one year.At the same time, doctors who conducted this clinical trial, claiming that the condition of the patients was so bad that without the use of vaccine life expectancy of these patients would have been a much shorter period.

drug against brain cancer

Just very recently appeared data that are created new vaccine against one of the most aggressive malignancies of the brain tissue, which is known as glioblastoma multiforme. feature of this type of tumor is the practical impossibility of complete removal of brain.

drug against glioblastoma multiforme has successfully passed clinical trials.The basis of its mechanism of action lies in the fact that there is activation of the T-cell immunity.When testing the vaccine in the United States data were obtained that 90% of all patients in the treatment of which the medicament is used, after six months of therapy even field start continued to live.Number of patients alive after twelve months was 30% of their original number at the start of the experiment.This figure is a half times better than the result which was obtained by using standard methods of treatment.vaccine storage

Other new ways to treat cancer

Researchers increasingly confident step towards the treatment of cancer, in which the therapy is based on the analysis of individual tumor genomic composition in this particular patient.

The Institute for the Study of malignant diseases in the University of Cambridge was made a major breakthrough in the treatment of cancer. It lies in the fact that researchers have invented a method of tracking, using DNA analysis in the bloodstream circulating in cancer cells, for how genetic variations occur in tumor.A significant advantage of the new technique is that it makes it possible to observe how and in what direction malignancy is modified over time, and how it shaped her response to drug therapy.In this case the patient does not need to take the analysis of tissue, exposing him to even greater suffering.Thus, using this methodology physicians some specific forms and variability of tumor drug resistance were found.

also a significant step in personalizing treatment issues have become attempts to create atlas of genomic structure of malignant neoplasms.On this subject were written eighteen scientific articles, four of which work was published in Nature.In these studies, it was told about the project Pan-Cancer Initiative, and about the first results obtained, in which is reflected the work of experts of two national research institutes: the Institute, which explores the cancer institute and studying the human genome.The researchers analyzed thousands of patients have underlying disease which means a malignant tumor.graft There were twelve types of tumors.The main objective of the project Pan-Cancer Initiative is to find biomarkers, which can make precise classification of tumors, and targets, which can affect the newly created drugs.

In terms of surgical treatment of malignant tumors also have some progress.Finished creating "smart knife," which is capable of automatically and independently determine the edge of cancers by orienting the testimony of a mass spectrometer, which is embedded in it, and analyzes the composition of the vapor when heated.With this instrument the surgeon conducting the operation can now just completely remove the entire tumor.Thus any cancer cells in the wound and not healthy tissue is not affected.