Soviet scientists was first obtained by the culture of stem cells of human origin neuronal (NSC).
- 1 use of stem cells in the brain
- 2 Methods for producing cells
- 3 Source NSC
- 4 The discovery of stem cells in the brain
- 5 what is the importance of cleanliness NSC culture?
- 6 Methods for generating cells
- 7 Practical use of the results
use of stem cells in the brain
As much has been achieved in the matter of studying stem properties over the last ten yearscells in their marrow transplantation animals. It was found that these cells have the ability to seek out damaged areas and to correct defects in neural networks at the same time to enter the zone of their action, they are able to travel long distances .In some laboratories in Europe and the United States have made progress in the creation of the NSC by spiking cells fragment of the viral genome.The result was the immortal cell line, which, however, can only be used in experiments with ani
transplantation of stem cells in clinical practice was pioneered by Russian scientists, which is an important step forward in the matter of their application.Unlike their Western counterparts, the Russians brought up neural stem cells, using fetal cells and tissues.Since viruses fragments NSC production data are not used, they can be used in the treatment of humans.
Methods for producing cells
marrow stem cells in pure culture were obtained by the two methods.The first method is to divide the NSC directly in the suspension.In the second embodiment, the NSC colonies were formed using accessory cells required for the survival of stem clones.When cloning or transformed cells were divided into neurons and other brain tissue specific patterns. for transplant, they were the best option, since the difference between them from the natural brain cells was minimal, and during transfer to the patient's brain NSC evolved with repetition of the program of embryogenesis .Those.neuronal stem cells are progenitor cells of the brain that makes it unique.
During the experiments the scientists used cells that were derived from fetal brain, whose age was not more than 15 weeks.In this period the highest growth of the brain.
Highlight the desired cells is a very difficult task, since in the brain tissue of an adult NSC percentage is less than 0.01%. A growing embryo in the brain from the ninth to the fifteenth week of gestation the number of stem cells comes to 8% (remaining mass - is more specialized neurons).Others sources of the NSC is not available, so the embryo tissue at the moment are indispensable in terms of replenishment of stem cells in the brain.
At the initial stage of embryogenesis going nonstop division of immature germ cells, while their number within the body reaches a certain "critical point", then their specialization begins.This period is known as cellular differentiation.However, in all organs preserved in reserve a certain number of undifferentiated embryonic cells.This small pool - a kind Bank of stem cells, emergency supply necessary for regeneration and continuous cell renewal.
The discovery of stem cells in the brain
blood stem cells , intestines and skin was found first, as these bodies have a maximum level of regeneration and the maximum margin of embryonic cells.For example, daily produces about 1,000 new formed elements in blood.However, the idea that there are also neural stem cells are not allowed until the end of the 20th century, since there was a perennial urge clinicians that damaged parts of the brain do not regenerate.It is generally accepted opinion that the cells of brain tissue, capable of division and growth, can be found only in fetuses and children during the first two years of life.Then they stop growing and begin to form the intercellular communication in nerve networks.At this time, each neuron forms a lot of synapses to several hundred thousand.The number of cells in the neural networks of the brain of an adult is about one hundred trillion.
Scientists have shown that brain cells were also able to regenerate in particular external assistance.There supply of neural stem cells contained in the lateral ventricles, which is extremely small and is one-hundredth of a percent of all neurons .Therefore, it is not enough to fix the damaged structure in a timely manner (stroke, for example).That's what the NSC supply from the outside, and clean lines.
What is the importance of cleanliness NSC culture?
primarily because only these cells know exactly about where should migrate .Secondly, for transplantation into the brain needs enriched pool of NSC.If present in the suspension will be more mature and differentiated neurons, it is difficult to migrate.
The advantage of clean lines is that their source is a cell predecessor, so they have a uniform composition and ideal for Neurotransplantation.B - Third, the NSC must find the damaged area of the brain and nervous spoiled fit into the network.Many authors have shown that stem cells in the brain animals and humans to migrate out of the ventricular zone damage (cerebral cortex).
cells for transplantation need about 50 million NSC, while their initial concentration is not more than 2 million in 1 milliliter.The main difficulty in obtaining culture is to maintain the spherical form clusters of these cells to avoid their attachment to the walls of vessel in which they are contained .Since in this case the NSC immediately begin to transform into neurons.
Russian scientists has developed a method of growing cell lines, which allowed initially to get rid of unnecessary components (neurons, connective tissue cells).Given that the growth characteristics of the NSC is a reproduction of the original clones, in the future we plan to make immortal progenitor cell lines and stem cells to create a factory that will be self-perpetuating.In this case the NSC can be frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored until the moment of operation.Therefore, the main task of the future of medicine is to create a bank of stem cells in the brain.
Practical use of the results
So, the first Russian scientists grown culture of neural stem cells.What is the practical application of the results of experiments?
This study has given a great impetus to the development of clinical medicine.unique cell lines have been established and accomplished their reproduction in an amount sufficient for clinical use.There was a real prospect of transition to direct neyrotrasplantatsii stem cells in the brain.
Application of this method - therapy of patients with the most severe pathologies.In the first place the children with lesions of the central nervous system, as according to reports, at present birth rate of these newborns increased by 5 times.And these children are neurologically very heavy, are disabled from birth, and make up a large group of patients with cerebral palsy.
addition to young patients, the scope of the NSC included brain lesions of different nature in adults.There are all conditions and data that allow us to hope for a successful recovery in the future conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
US Myelin Project has been created in which it is currently prepared the clean lines of neural stem cells for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.These pools of undifferentiated cells transplanted into the rat brain, which was modeled this pathology, and thus there is a compensation lesions in the central nervous system.
NCC also data lines have been used in humans for the treatment of cysts, which were formed in the spinal cord of patients with certain diseases.In some experimental centers in the US neuronal cells used in the treatment of brain injury and arising as a result of the subsequent paralysis.In Mexico implemented NSC transplantation shark embryos for the purpose of treatment of brain injury (brain and spinal cord).
This experience of many countries makes it possible to count on the fact that the NSC will soon be widely used in clinical practice as well as the alternative is not currently available.At least at the present time there are no drugs to effectively recover irreversibly lost nerve cells.And with the NSC the opportunity arises.
Also important is the fact that Russian scientists are developing methods of cultivation not only of stem cells in the brain, but also cells of other embryonic tissues.In second place in importance are mesenchymal stem elements, connecting all human cells.They have a unique feature that allows them to carry out the immunological interaction between two different cells.Using this property holds great promise in the treatment of systemic issues and autoimmune human diseases (such as rheumatic disease, or systemic lupus erythematosus).
Scientists plan to create resource of cells possessing immortal, the ability to differentiate and transform into the desired cell types in contact in different bodies and in the preparation of local signals there.Those.now clinicians have real prospects for the introduction into clinical practice of prolonging life opportunities and nerve cells to the human body.