far ahead of advanced genetic engineering and regenerative medicine, where success lies in the fact that the opportunity to restore the damaged organ by means of the same cells.

Content

  • 1 Create authorities bioengineered way
  • 2 Obtaining stem cells
  • 3 Application in clinic
  • 4 Print authorities via
  • printer

Create bioengineered organs

way past 2013 was marked by the fact that it was created several organs using bioengineering techniques using human cells.Made authorities, however, is not working in the human body and in the bodies of laboratory animals (mice and rats). During this miracle bioengineering researchers used an animal carcass body was removed from his native cells and human cells were seeded brainstem origin.

These miracle-bodies include bioengineering bud cultivated with kidney rat carcass, populated epithelial cells from human kidney.It has been successfully implanted in the animal, and worked to implement the provisions it functions: filter

blood and excreted urine.To include bioengineered and two grown liver.The first one was created from human stem cells transplanted into the mouse body and normally performs its functions in it.The second was grown using the fat cells derived from human liposuction.It is also easy with the use of fibroblasts from human skin were created (not yet passed the test on animals).Bioengineering method (cloning) reproduce even the heart (click on the frame filled with human cells), which performs its function and beats.Human stem cells served as the basis for playing the vessels of the circulatory system, the working muscles.And the apotheosis of the research was that was grown pinna natural human size.The body created from the frame, made from cow cartilage tissue, and seeded with human cells.Scientists have been able to create and likeness of the brain (the prototype).More precisely, they are grown in vitro, in a petri dish, using the stem cells of the brain , who then themselves have formed something like a brain.

Obtaining stem cells

stem cells in this area (the use of stem cells) marked another success scholar Shukhrat Mitalipova, who was able to get into the laboratory embryonic stem cells Human Stem origin by means of transplantation of the nucleus ofa somatic cell into an egg .This was for cellular medicine major breakthrough as possible to create stem cells, rather than trying to get them in all possible ways.This success Mitalipova was named the journal Science as the scientific breakthrough of the year.

Application in clinic

Although these technologies is being improved in the laboratories, but regenerative medicine has already made a step forward in the direction of the clinic, where she began to be used successfully with its help it is possible to save life.Paolo Macchiarini in his hospital carries out recovery operations on the trachea, and in 2013 was first saved the life of a child with the help of bioengineered trachea.It was created on a special frame made of a material through which the trachea can be extended with an increase in the growth of a young patient.Rejection is avoided because when you create are used stem cell transplant child, so that the transplanted organ by the body of the child is not perceived as foreign.Russia also conducted such operations at the Center for Regenerative Medicine.

cage fence to success in the practical application of stem cell technology also include a unique case.German doctors were able to bring the child out of the coma and vegetative existence, using stem cells from umbilical cord blood .After replanting them in the child's condition very quickly appeared and began to build up a positive trend, the patient can begin to walk and talk.Scientists have explained the fact that the transplanted cells migrated into the brain, where they could replace missing and damaged neurons.

Print authorities using the printer

However, the most incredible achievement in the field of regenerative medicine - it is printing with help of 3D-bioprinter.Although viable whole organs and scientists still can not be created using this method, however, progress in this direction significantly.For example, an important practical step towards the achievement of medicine and began printing bronchus child.During the operation of the bronchus fragment was used in the form of tubes, made individually for the patient, it is made a successful transplant and engraftment.In Russia in 2013 it was created the first laboratory for the study of methods of three-dimensional bodies biopechati.The aim of the scientists, it was headed, was the cloning of human kidneys.The intermediate stage of the creation was called nephron.