To date, the problem of low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is not solved.According to studies suffer from hypoglycemia, patients with diabetes mellitus. Due to the impossibility of full control over the symptom develops a large number of complications in the organs and systems, resulting in a sharp decline in the quality of life.
Almost 5% of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes, further DM type 2) is developed at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia in the year.
- 1 What is hypoglycemia?
- 2 Normal values of blood sugar
- 3 Causes hypoglycemia
- 4 What happens in a healthy organism, while reducing the level of glucose?
- 5 How does an attack of hypoglycemia?
- 6 Preferred drugs
What is hypoglycemia?
At the moment, there is no clear definition of the symptom.Hypoglycemia is considered the state that is accompanied by a decrease in blood glucose levels below 2.8 mmol / l of symptoms associated with the presence o
This definition can not always be applied to a patient with diabetes, because many patients do not feel the decrease in blood glucose below normal figures.However, decompensated state, that is when the symptoms of the disease poorly controlled by medicines, symptoms of hypoglycemia may occur and when the level of glucose 4-5 mmol / l.
According treatment of hypoglycemia American Association diabetologists this condition can bring harm to the patient at any level of reduction of blood glucose.
Normal blood sugar values in
The World Health Organization has defined normal blood glucose levels in the range of 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L.We can not say that the lower limit is the last resort.To date not set unbreakable lower level.
most important factor leading to a decrease in blood sugar levels, it is considered an imbalance between the production of insulin and the intake of carbohydrates. For example, in patients with type 2 diabetes the imbalance is triggered by an overdose of insulin or hypoglycaemic medicinal products.This may provoke a breach of the body's sensitivity to insulin receptors are mainly due to excessive physical exertion.
What happens in a healthy organism, while reducing the level of glucose?
By reducing blood glucose levels below 3.7 mmol / l activates the endocrine mechanisms directed against insulin:
- suppression of insulin secretion in the pancreas.This reaction, in turn, stimulates the production of glucose in the body at the expense of internal resources;
- With a lack of effectiveness of the above-described step is amplified synthesis of adrenaline and corticosteroids.
These stages are functioning normally and in patients with newly emerging disease.However, after some time, these mechanisms are exhausted.The system works against insulin can not provide the body with glucose and subsequently having severe hypoglycemia.
disrupted operation of the system due to the fact that there is an infringement of recognition of hypoglycemia and impaired hormonal response to low blood sugar due to excessive levels of insulin.
hypoglycemic events are very dangerous, because it leads to the gradual complete destruction kontrinsulyarnyh system.These facts motivate doctors and patients to prevent any cases of hypoglycemia.
danger of such attacks more characterized by the fact that in the future it is very difficult to find treatment in the form of glucose-lowering medications these patients, without the introduction of insulin, because insulin and drugs can cause symptoms of hypoglycemia .
How does an attack of hypoglycemia?
With a sharp decrease in blood sugar occurs shortness of breath, palpitations. Patients covered with cold sticky sweat, feel weakness and nausea.Before the eyes of all the floats and very hungry.If at this time to eat a piece of candy or any sweet rolls, a few minutes or even seconds can feel the state of improvement.
If it is impossible to take any carbohydrate may occur fainting and hypoglycemic coma, which is fraught with serious consequences in the form of disorders of many organs and systems, as well as death.
If the person is unconscious, call the team ambulance.The patient will hold the measurement of blood sugar levels and determine that it is significantly reduced.After that will be introduced intravenously a solution of 40% glucose and the patient immediately open your eyes and come to life.This hypoglycemic coma differs from the other com in which glucose is not expected to have any effect.
inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is used to treat type 2 diabetes type.These drugs affect physiological pathways saharosnizheniya.These drugs protect patients from hypoglycemia by increasing glucose-insulin secretion and suppress glucagon production responsible for the increase in glucose production in the body.
From this group of drugs a few words to say about vildagliptin, which proved to be very effective and safe treatment of diabetes type 2. With it improves the ability to control blood glucose (blood glucose level), moreover it can be administered separately from other drugs or in combination.