For a more complete disclosure of the issue of pituitary adenoma is necessary to consider the structure of the body - the pituitary gland and its function in the body.The pituitary gland is located in the human brain.This endocrine gland, the size does not exceed the size of a pea, but from her job depends directly on the work of other glands and in many respects the human being, what we called happiness.Many people know about the influence of pituitary human growth, but not many know its impact on the field of sexual and reproductive rights.
pituitary gland consists of two lobes.Front - adenohypophysis, which produced six own hormones and back, in which the two are accumulated hormone produced by the hypothalamus.These hormones are produced in the case of the normal operation of the gland.Violations in the work can be caused by this pathology as the occurrence of pituitary adenomas, which exists in abundance.
In accordance with the classification of pituitary adenomas are evaluated as beni
The cause of adenomas
assumed that pituitary adenoma can trigger a variety of factors, including long-term use of oral contraceptives, and adverse effects on the fetus protection during pregnancy and neural infections, traumahead and brain.pituitary adenomas may be hormonally inactive (in the case of nevyrabotki hormones) and hormonally active (in the formulation of appropriate Gomonov).
holds adenomas classification according to size - micro - when tumor size is between 1 mm to 2 cm and macro - when tumor size exceeding 2 cm
Symptoms manifestations pituitary adenoma divided into:. Endocrine-dependent, oftalmonevrologichesky andradiological symptoms.Endocrine-dependent syndrome indicates the degree of over-produced hormone and the extent of tissue damage that surrounds the tumor.When certain types of pituitary adenomas, the manifestation of the disease is caused not so much by the excess amount of the corresponding hormone, and more connected with the body stimulation, which is exposed to the hormone, resulting in Cushing, thyrotoxicosis.In any case, to what good it does not.For example, an excess of growth hormone leads to gigantism (runaway growth), an excess of prolactin (a hormone responsible for lactation) leads to the growth of the mammary glands and the non-controlling milk production.The men - also breast growth with all its consequences.
Glazonevrologicheskie manifestations, indicating pituitary adenoma, dependent on random growth tumors and providing pressure on the diaphragm sella, causing headache.Headache dull, without nausea, is not related to body position, seen in the forehead, temples, behind the orbital rarely cropped analgesics.The subsequent tumor growth (size bolee2 cm) complicates the patient's condition - a problem develops on the part of the visual apparatus, with a nose problem, until the cerebrospinal fluid.The sudden increase in headaches and glazonevrologicheskih manifestations may be due to hemorrhage into the tumor, which is recognized by serious, but not hopeless complication.
X-ray examination shows the change in the size and shape of the Turkish saddle dystrophy his bony structures.CT is determined by the tumor itself.
For certain hormone-actin tumor has its own specific manifestations exclusively for women (infertility, irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding), men (gynecomastia, and impotence).Men tend tumor diagnosed much later than women.For children, the disease is manifested typical symptoms and even diabetes, obesity.Maybe hypertrophied thyroid gland, but without dysfunction.Increased body hair peculiar to the skin, papillomas, warts, enhanced function of perspiration and greasy skin, decreased performance.Maybe, partial paralysis and reduced sensitivity in the limbs endings, pain.
for diagnosis of pituitary adenoma apply clinical and biochemical and radiological studies, radioimmunoassay method, computed tomography, MRI.
In short, the problems that result from the presence of pituitary adenomas can be summarized as follows: - a violation of metabolism and hormonal levels in the body;damage to healthy, working pituitary cells, which reduces the production of the respective substances;neurological disorders caused by compression of the brain tissue.
Very rarely diagnosed malignant pituitary adenoma.
treatment of pituitary adenomas
different methods are used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas.Medication - sometimes allows to reduce swelling and to control its expression.But generic medicines for all people there.Radiation therapy -.. A long process, quite successful, but not friendly, that is associated with the ability to defeat the healthy brain cells.Radiation therapy is indicated for small adenomas sizes, give good results.
Neurosurgical treatment methods are applied for violations on the part of the visual apparatus, when complicated nature of adenomas caused by bleeding, formation of cysts in the area of adenoma.Complication - possible mechanical damage or removal of healthy pituitary cells.
At present the latest technology used in operations in the adenomas - transsphenoidal microsurgery, the Cyber-Knife.The result is good and depends on the size of the tumor - the smaller the tumor, the more favorable the outcome.It is clear that the use of the latest technology is preferred.But we should always remember that in all cases it is necessary to contact the appropriate specialist, in this case, the doctor-endocrinologist.