disease mediated by excessive loss of neurons, which are contained in the black matter of the midbrain, and the neurons that make up the other parts of the central nervous system.Normally, a person every day is the destruction and cell death of neurons black substance.The progressive destruction means a pathological process, which is Parkinson's disease.

The name of the disease acquired through the French neurologist Jean Charcot.She was named by him in honor of another British physician James Parkinson.In D. Parkinson at that time it was known work entitled "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy".

In the modern world was created by the National Society for the study of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

disease is among the neurodegenerative.This means that the return of the disease process, including the repair of nerve fibers occurs.Parkinson's disease is found everywhere.The highest risk group - the elderly.The disease is in second place after a group of similar diseases - Alzhe

imer's disease.There are two most probable boundary age for the most probable appearance of the disease - a group of people over 60 years old and a group of people over 85 years.The most likely age of first onset of symptoms ranges from 55 to 60 years.

Expert's opinion: At the moment, the beginning of the disease affect people active intellectual age.

In rare cases, the disease can develop much earlier, and very rarely its manifestation at a young age.Special preference is no risk groups.Most often it affects men.The transfer from one generation to another is very rare.

Content

  • 1 Causes
  • 2 Symptoms
  • 3 prognosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease

Causes

main reasonoccurrence of Parkinson's disease in a given period of time not fully understood.Studied and described only the pathogenesis of this disease.

Parkinson In the area of ​​the brain stem, where the nerve cells, called neurons black crashes, and they begin to deteriorate and die hard.As a result of this bad start to communicate with each other numerous connections of the brain stem to other parts of the central nervous system.Black substance stops producing dopamine in necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system quantities.Dopamine - a neurotransmitter, ie substance, without which it can not be normal communication and the transfer of momentum on the synapses between neurons.

One of the probable causes of the disease may be a defect in the genes.He starts the process of destruction of the black matter of the brain much more quickly than in normal aging.Modern science has discovered that the disease is triggered by changes in an entirely different gene sections.Identify with some specific genes are not represented by modern science possible.

Other possible causes of neuronal death may include various types of infections affecting the central nervous system, changes in the functioning of capillaries and vessels with age.

For the next group of the causes of the disease are environmental factors, and all that may be associated with exposure to certain substances in the neurons of the black substance of the brain.Most likely, the disease develops when a combination of several factors.

Symptoms

for Parkinson's disease is characterized by the following symptoms: trembling (tremor), muscle stiffness (increased muscle tone), hypokinesia (reduction in the volume of voluntary movements), the violation of stability, autonomic, and mental disorders.

  • Vegetative and mental disorders

to vegetative disorders, Parkinson's disease inherent attribute such as dysregulation of the pupils, micturition disorders, cardiovascular activity, thermoregulation, sweating, excessive greasiness of the skin, excessive salivation.

to vegetative disorders can join a metabolic disorder.This weight reduction, and, conversely, obesity.

In Parkinson's disease is violated not only the coordination of the nervous regulation of the autonomic nervous system, but also the mind.It arises as a result of the destruction of neurons and poor conduction of the nerve impulse between them.

a result of lower production of dopamine having depression.There may be forms of acute psychosis - fears and hallucinations, and paranoid state.

  • Violation of stability

arises at a late stage of the disease.It is characterized by uncoordinated movement of the body (body body tends walking ahead position of the feet).This resistance is lost until the fall.Characterized by intermittent or permanent loss of the body's center of gravity.

  • Muscle stiffness (increased muscle tone)

In this case, patients are characterized by "dummy pose": the frozen half-bent arms and legs, stooped posture, his head bent forward.Limbs as if frozen in a position to give them.All movements are hampered.Delay arise in all types of movements, including facial.the patient's face may resemble a mask.

  • tremor (shaking)

characteristic involuntary swaying of the head (nodding his head "yes" or "no-no").Trembling hands, eyelids, tongue and lower jaw.For "Parkinsonian" jitter characteristic of his disappearance with the emergence of physical activity.

prognosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease

Treatment may only supportive, as there are no drugs that can completely prevent the death of the black matter of the brain.The most commonly used replacement therapy that restores dopamine levels.Drugs lead to a reduction and disappearance of symptoms.

Among other methods of treatment can be distinguished surgical - thalamotomy.This mechanical or cold exposure on certain areas of the brain.The method has been used successfully in GUNTS Neurology.Among other innovative methods used method of electrical stimulation of the brain.

prognosis depends on the early detection of disease and maintenance of continuous maintenance therapy.