atrophy of the optic nerve is an ophthalmic disease associated with the withering away of the optic nerve fibers that connects the retina to the brain visual analyzer.
The cause of atrophy can be any disease of the body, most often it is due to pathological processes of the retina (poor circulation, congestion, swelling, inflammation).Often optic atrophy develops in the central nervous system of various types of tumors and skull injuries.Among the reasons for its occurrence and the presence of hypertension, meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, poisoning with methyl alcohol, intoxication, vitamin deficiency.Atrophy of the optic nerve is a constant companion of the disease, as glaucoma (increased pressure inside the eye).
main symptom of atrophy of the optic nerve is the sharp deterioration of vision is not curable.Reduced visual acuity is a feature of any eye disease, because as early as possible is important to seek professional help.Full optic atrophy usually leads to blindness, whi
may experience visual disturbances as a narrowing of the visual field (the patient ceases to see the "edge of the eye"), the appearance of dark spots before the eyes of different sizes, it is impossible to distinguish between colors, the ability to see the limited space, located just in front of you With the destruction of the optic nerve fibers.Partial atrophy usually does not lead to total blindness.Its result becomes a partial loss of vision with the ability to orient himself in space in the future.
The main feature of the disease manifests itself in different ways, depending on the place of the nerve, which began its destruction.The appearance of dark spots before your eyes is a testament to the destruction of nerve fibers located in the center of the retina of an eye.Such changes can be observed how in both eyes, and in one of them.
There are primary and secondary atrophy of the optic nerve.In the first case there is pallor of the optic disc (its border with clearly distinguishable), narrowing of the blood vessels of the retina.In secondary atrophy, pallor of the optic nerve is accompanied by the vagueness of its boundaries.The patient eye at the same time expand and become visible blood vessels.
Tutor treatment of optic nerve atrophy is strictly prohibited.Establishing an accurate diagnosis it is very difficult for non-specialists in the field of ophthalmology.The sharp deterioration of vision is also a sign of clouding of the eye lens (cataract) and amblyopia (a disease associated with a decrease in visual acuity), the causes of which are still uncertain.Both diseases are the least hazardous to human vision than the optic nerve atrophy.
withering away of the optic nerve fibers can act as an independent disease or as a primary sign of a pathology of the eye.Often atrophy is a symptom of a very serious central nervous system disease, so early diagnosis is very important not only for the salvation of the patient, but sometimes in order to save his life.
At the first suspicions on the development of the disease should consult a neurologist or ophthalmologist.Both specialists are engaged in treatment of optic nerve atrophy.In some cases, to identify the causes of the disease requires the therapist assistance, an infectious disease specialist, oncologist, otolaryngologist, a neurosurgeon.
basis for diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy is ophthalmoscopy - study eye using a special light source and eye mirrors, measurement of intraocular pressure and the patient survey on the related deterioration of the complaint.As further studies can be carried out: brain imaging, X-ray of the skull, check patency of vascular retina, general and biochemical blood test.
Treatment of the atrophy of the optic nerve is very difficult.Its main task is to stop already begun in the eye of the process of the withering away of the fibers and prevent the development of disease.Dead of the optic nerve can not be recovered.In some cases, the disease may achieve restoration of function of dead nerve fibers.Otherwise, the patient is deprived of either partial or full.
It is important to see a specialist in the first weeks of the disease.If the main reason for its occurrence in time to diagnose and fix, you can achieve a recovery of 1-2 months.Treatment of the atrophy of the optic nerve is carried out comprehensively.The patient is assigned a number of special agents in the form of eye drops, tablets, injections.The main therapy for this is aimed at:
- Improving the metabolic processes in the damaged nervous tissue by means of vitamins (B2, Ascorutinum, B6), biogenic stimulants (torfot, aloe extract), enzymes (lidasa);
- Improved circulation in the blood vessels supplying the optic nerve, using trental, nicotinic acid, dibazola, papaverine;
- metabolism Stimulation flowing in the affected eye, stop the inflammatory process, improve the activity of the nervous system by fosfadena, prednisolone, phezam treatment.
combination of drugs prescribed by a doctor after the detection of concomitant diseases, which also require mandatory treatment.By modern methods of treatment of atrophy include laser and magnetic stimulation of the optic nerve.Even with the positive effect of the treatment of the disease after a few months it should pass a second course.The key to successful treatment is the proper diet with a predominance in the diet of fresh vegetables patient.At considerable loss of vision addressed the issue of assigning the patient a certain group of disability.