Pulmonary tuberculosis - is vysokozaraznoe infectious disease characterized by the formation in the affected tissues of specific foci of inflammation and pronounced body's reaction.Recently, the most economically developed countries, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and mortality decreased from him.But in spite of this, tuberculosis is still a widespread disease that affects, to a greater extent, adolescents, young children, adults, women and older people of both sexes, and to a lesser extent - adult men.
- 1 Causes of pulmonary tuberculosis
- 2 Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis
- 3 diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Causes of tuberculosislung
causative agent of tuberculosis is a group of bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.Most often, the disease causes a part of this group of Koch's bacillus.TB bacteria are among the most resistant to the action of the surrounding environment, can long exist outside of the human or animal, but, despite th
key source of infection with tuberculosis of the lungs and the main reservoir of infection are sick people before.This infection occurs most often in contact with people with active TB, that is, those that produce tubercle bacilli sputum.Typically, in this case by a respiratory infection occurs, i.e. healthy individuals become carriers of the infection, the air inhaled with scattered by microorganisms.Persons with an open form of pulmonary tuberculosis in can infect more than ten people for a year.In turn, the infection from carriers closed forms of the disease with a poor release of bacteria is only possible with constant, prolonged and close contact.
Sometimes infection with pulmonary tuberculosis occurs contact (through skin lesions) and nutritional (through the digestive tract).The source of the disease can be not only people, but also sick animals, such as poultry or cattle.The infection is transmitted from animals, usually with eggs, milk, or in contact with excreta of livestock and poultry drinking water.
According to WHO, to date, pulmonary tuberculosis infected about one third of the world's population, but the disease itself starts to develop only in the presence of a number of conditions conducive to this.Most often, these terms are:
- decreased immunity;
- adverse living conditions;
- constant stress;
- long smoking (especially in those cases when a person smokes more than 20 cigarettes a day);
- overindulgence in alcoholic beverages;
Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis
Due to the large number of possible clinical forms of pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest itself in the form of a variety of symptom or for a long time to develop symptoms.In the latter case, the disease can be discovered by chance during a chest X-ray, X-ray of the chest or shooting when setting tuberculin tests.
In cases where tuberculosis is manifested clinically, its first symptoms appear:
- general weakness, lethargy, fatigue;
- pale skin;
- low-grade fever;
- dramatic weight loss;
- excessive sweating, especially strongly disturbing the patient at night;
- regional or Generalized lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes sizes).
In addition, the development of pulmonary tuberculosis is accompanied by dry cough, sustained, escalating at night and in the morning.With the progression of the disease cough becomes wet and is complicated by hemoptysis.Later, the patient has wheezing in the lungs, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and chest pain.
Sometimes pulmonary tuberculosis contributes to bronchial fistulas and disorders in various organs.In such cases, lung disease, as a rule, is the primary, and the other organs are affected by hematogenous seeding.
The most common complications include pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonia, tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy, tuberculosis spread to other organs or tissues (miliary tuberculosis), as well as the development of decompensated pulmonary heart.
diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Given that pulmonary tuberculosis in most cases are asymptomatic, a significant role in its diagnosis play a variety of preventive examinations.That is why doctors strongly recommend that adults produce a chest x-ray every year, and children - to take the Mantoux test.Mantoux test is called the specific form of TB diagnosis, allowing to identify the degree of infection with TB bacteria and the body's level of reactivity of the tissues.
main method of diagnosis is considered radiography.Thus pockets of infection may be detected not only in the lungs but also in other organs and tissues.In addition, to detect the pathogen in humans bakposev produce sputum, and if you can not sow bacterium taken from biological materials talking about ICD-negative form.In some cases, to clarify the diagnosis is carried out computer tomography lung, bronchoscopy with biopsy, immunological tests, a biopsy of the lymph nodes.
data obtained as a result of laboratory tests are often nonspecific and indicate only the presence of inflammation and toxicity in the patient.However, the full and timely investigation of the human body, a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis, allows you to choose the most effective treatment strategy for him.