Grave's disease, otherwise known as Graves 'disease (the medical name - Graves' disease) is a disease associated with a deviation of the thyroid gland (its increase in size and over-production of hormones).
Basedow's disease belongs to the category of autoimmune diseases (in which the human immune system begins to fight with his same body cells) and usually affects young girls and women under the age of 45 years.Malfunction of the immune system leads to the development of active specific leukocyte antibody proteins that affect the production of thyroid hormones.
Expert opinion: The above facts describe the likely autoimmune thyroiditis.Graves' disease is the hyperthyroidism, which is formed when excess synthesis of thyroid hormones.The reasons may be different.
Today, the reasons for which the immune system begins to suppress the body's own cells are not fully established.Among the predisposing factors for Graves' disease: family history, the presence of viral infections and chronic diseas
Not today experts highlighted three degrees, which is held in its development of Graves' disease:
- Mild disease usually occurs over a long period of time, does not prove itself.Its mild symptoms (slight weight loss, lack of sleep, absent-mindedness) is often mistaken for signs of tiredness, fatigue, depression.
- average degree of Graves' disease manifested by an increase in heart rate up to 120 beats per minute, blood pressure changes.
- Severe disease manifested by an increase of the heart rate to 120 beats per minute or more, finding the patient in a state of complete rest, a violation of the various internal organs.
Symptoms of Graves 'disease
starts Graves' disease for the average person almost imperceptibly.Its first signs may include: excessive sweating, frequent trembling of the upper limbs, insomnia, mood swings.the patient's skin over time becomes more dark, in the region of his lower limbs can be seen small permanent swelling.
emergence of the crop leads to disruption of the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body, resulting in increased risk of developing diabetes.Thyroid patient usually becomes more dense and visible, but not touching gives pain to it.Soreness gland during palpation indicates the presence of any other disease.
Graves' disease has a negative impact on the work of many organs and body systems, causing such symptoms may appear:
- Increase eyes (exophthalmos).Bodies of becoming wide open, bulging eyelids become permanent swelling.Eating disorders of the optic nerve gradually leads to impairment of vision.In some cases, Graves' disease develop complete blindness;
Expert Opinion: Actually eyeballs themselves do not increase.There is excessive growth of fatty tissue, which is located behind the eyes.This phenomenon leads to exophthalmos.
- constant anxiety, insomnia, migraine, sudden attacks of vertigo;
- Tingling in the heart, increasing venous pressure;
- Violation stool, frequent bouts of nausea, abnormal liver function;
- Reduced sexual activity, menstrual disorders in women;
- nail Worsening condition (fragility, lamination, yellowing, appearance of white grooves in the nail plate) and hair (fragility, loss);
- impossibility of conceiving a child.
Diagnosis and treatment of Graves 'disease
Diagnostics Graves' disease is not difficult.The presence of moderate disease can be determined by the patient's external appearance and its behavior.Thus, the patient visited the doctor behaves very restless, fussy, makes a lot of unnecessary movements at the moment.His speech was very hurried and disconnected without expressing a single thought, he quickly moves on to another (for the simple reason that it is difficult to restrain long attention to a single object).
In a survey it is found out that the patient has a good appetite, but continues to lose weight for many months in a row.The skin of the patient warm, slightly damp, he may complain of its excessive pigmentation.Eye specialist is able to determine the size of the patient's thyroid gland.At the initial stage of the disease, it is almost invisible, as it increases the development of goiter, and acquires a significant form.
As the disease progresses it becomes evident even goiter person far from medicine, the patient's neck thickens.In some cases goiter can reach a very large size, it is localized in the neck in the form of a large tumor.
most dangerous known to date, the effects of Graves' disease is a coma or thyrotoxic crisis.It promotes the development of: a strong emotional shock, the long absence of qualified treatment, excessive exercise, carrying out any surgical intervention into the body, the development of infection, improper treatment of the disease.When tireotoksicheskom Stroke observed damage internal organs as a result of admission into them with a current of blood thyroid hormones.
diagnosis of diffuse toxic goiter is based on the result of the blood test.In the presence of the disease detected therein increase of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, and iodine.cholesterol thus lowered.In some cases, Graves' disease goiter practically not detectable, whereas the blood analysis indicates its presence.In this case, we have to be an atypical location of the crop.
In this situation, held radioisotope scanning of the thyroid gland, which allows to determine its exact location and size.It should be remembered that increasing the crop may be an indication not only Graves' disease, and tumors (both benign and malignant) thyroid its inflammation.
for the treatment of diffuse toxic goiter prescribers, reduce the production of thyroid hormones it (propylthiouracil, tiamazol and their derivatives).In case of failure of drug treatment is assigned to surgical removal of the goiter.During the treatment of the disease the patient should be in a calm state, in familiar surroundings for him, his diet should be balanced and diverse.The forecast is favorable in the case of compliance with all the recommendations of the experts.