Myopia is a progressive disease that is a consequence of the elongation of the eyeball.The scientific name of short-sightedness - myopia.In the presence of myopia child begins to distinguish distant objects badly.This stems from the fact that the light rays coming from objects located far, in a reduced focus not on the retina, but in front of it.Ophthalmologists share child myopia of a weak, medium and high.High myopia can reach over 30 D.
There are several causes of myopia in children:
- hereditary factor.Congenital myopia is 60-65% of all cases of myopia.The main cause of congenital myopia can be perinatal pathology, or to-child transmission of the disease is inherited from parents.Congenital myopia is characterized by changes in the fundus, decreased visual acuity, astigmatism and anisometropia.These symptoms are the result of improper development of the macular area and optic nerve.It is also known that children born preterm, more often prone to the emergence of myopia.
- Extension anteroposterior axis of the human eye, which is characteristic for the development of acquired myopia.Acquired myopia is most often seen in the preschool and early school years, at least - in the adult.
- External factors related to the ongoing excessive load on the eyes as a result of hard work and care visually impaired.Long sitting watching TV, computer games, reading in dim light can cause myopia.
- Incorrect child nutrition, weakened immunity, past illnesses can also cause myopia.
prevention of myopia should start from an early age.At the age of two weeks, the child starts to fix his gaze on the surrounding objects, informed opinion is formed only in the second month of life.During this period of development of the child need to pay special attention to the place where he resides; it should be moderately bright.It is best to place a cot in a very bright room apartment and to see to it that the light from artificial light at night did not fall directly on the child and not blinded him.Rattles need select only the red, green or orange, they must be located at a distance of 30 cm from the cot.
Currently, the percentage of pre-school children has increased significantly with the progression of myopia.This is due to the fact that most parents are trying to teach your child to read and write before going to school.In such cases, myopia is advancing so fast that can lead to serious vision problems in the future.
For the treatment of myopia in children, there are many methods and tools.They are aimed primarily at reducing the degree of myopia, the prevention of its further development and the elimination of possible complications.Modern equipment allows to achieve positive results in a short period of time.The following therapies are used to treat short-sightedness:
- Electrical.Small amounts of electrical current to positively affect the optic nerve.The procedure is completely safe and painless.
- Laser therapy.This method of treatment is the effect on the visual organs laser light applied to the screen located B10 centimeters from the patient's eye.The on-screen image of the structure and stimulate the retinal nerve cells of the eye, which has a beneficial effect on the patient's vision.
- Infrared laser therapy.Effects of infrared radiation on the patient's eye allows you to stay in accommodation spasm and improves nutrition of eye tissue.
- Vacuum massage.For the treatment of myopia such method uses a variable vacuum.This procedure improves the function of the ciliary muscle of the eye provides the normalization of blood circulation, improves the hydrodynamics of the eye.
In very rare cases, for the treatment of myopia with the rapid progression of the disease is applied surgery - scleroplasty.Its main aim is to intensify the metabolism of the membrane of the eyeball.
To prevent child myopia ophthalmologists recommend adherence to certain rules:
- Do not allow children under seven years of watching TV for longer 40 minutes a day.
- Do not allow a child of preschool age sitting at the computer, especially in families where there is a possibility of development of myopia.
- To equip the student room.In the room where the child do homework and engaged in reading, you need to install good lighting, choose comfortable furniture.When reading the literature away from the book to the child's eyes should not be less than 33 cm.
- teach a child to do daily exercises for the eyes.Exercises should focus on relaxation and tension of the eye muscles.Also, your doctor may prescribe special eye drops to improve eye nutrition.
- organize daily regimen and proper child nutrition.Encourage your student to go to bed at the same time, write it in the sports section as sedentary life is the best prevention of myopia, not only, but also many other diseases.To view useful following sports: tennis, badminton, volleyball, swimming.The daily ration of food schoolboy must necessarily include fresh vegetables and fruits.To view particularly useful carrots, peaches, apricots, sea buckthorn, persimmon.
primary means of prevention of myopia is timely and proper correction.Identify congenital myopia can be as early as the first year of a child's life, and the sooner will be assigned to the correction, the more successful will be the prevention of further development of the disease.