Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease, Hashimoto's) - is one of the most common autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland lesions.According to medical statistics, this pathology was detected in half of the women aged 30 to 50 years for men as it is diagnosed in the tens of times less.The first was described by Hashimoto's thyroiditis Hashimoto Japanese surgeon in 1912.

Content

  • 1 Causes autoimmune thyroiditis
  • 2 Symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis
  • 3 diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis
  • 4 treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis
  • 5 Power autoimmune thyroiditis

Causes autoimmune thyroiditis

factors that trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, have not been established.Meanwhile, there is evidence that the disease is caused by a specific defect in the body's immunological defense, in which blood human patient serum autoantibodies appear to the tissue of the thyroid system.

appear in the body of the patient self-reactive T cells, the ac

tivity of which in the normal state is easily suppressed suppressor system.In autoimmune thyroiditis self-reactive T cells begin to freely interact with the complementary antigens thyroid cells and cause local cell-mediated immune response.Under the action of T-lymphocytes transformed B lymphocytes into plasma cells and constitute their own polyclonal autoantibodies to thyroid gland.Thyroid cells are damaged or lost as a result of an autoimmune process, can no longer fully perform their functions.As a result, the disease is complicated by hypothyroidism - long, sustained lack of hormones.

It is believed that trigger the development of autoimmune thyroiditis can be:

  • acute respiratory viral diseases;
  • available in the body of chronic foci of infection;
  • excess chlorine compounds, iodine and fluorine in water, food and the environment;
  • bad environment;
  • long, uncontrolled hormonal or iodine-containing drugs;
  • long exposure to the sun;
  • radiation emissions;
  • stress, stressful factors (job loss, death of a loved one, etc.).

Symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis

In most cases, autoimmune thyroiditis with thyroid function intact asymptomatic.Occasionally patients complain of discomfort in the neck while wearing high collars, scarves and scarves.In hypothyroidism, the clinical picture of the disease becomes more severe.The main symptoms are complicated by autoimmune thyroiditis:

  • change the appearance of the patient type (pronounced pallor and puffiness of the face, the appearance on the cheeks and the tip of the nose spots painful blush, hair loss);
  • swelling of the tongue;
  • promiscuity speech;
  • slowness of movement;
  • shortness of breath;
  • constant fatigue, poor performance, memory impairment;
  • absence of an independent chair;
  • menstrual disorders;
  • impotence;
  • constant dry mouth.

a clinical examination of the patient revealed a marked increase in the thyroid gland, or, on the contrary, it hypoplasia.In any case, the iron becomes uneven contours appear on the surface of hillocks and nodes.

diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis

diagnose autoimmune thyroiditis is extremely difficult until the first signs of hypothyroidism.Usually, the diagnosis is established by characteristic clinical picture and on the basis of data obtained as a result of the following laboratory tests:

  • complete blood count (the number of lymphocytes revealed growth);
  • immunogram (detected antibodies to thyroglobulin, a second colloidal antigen, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid hormone the thyroid gland);
  • thyroid ultrasound (notes an increase or decrease in thyroid volume, a change in its structure);
  • biopsy of the thyroid gland (revealed an increased number of lymphocytes and other cells, characteristic of autoimmune thyroiditis).

The main criteria for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis are:

  • increase in the level of antibodies to the thyroid gland;
  • symptoms of hypothyroidism;
  • revealing hypoechoic thyroid gland during the ultrasound.

In the absence of at least one of the following criteria, the diagnosis can only be probabilistic in nature.

treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis

Special therapy Hashimoto's disease has not been developed until now.Despite recent advances in the field of medicine, endocrinology has not yet identified a safe and effective methods of correcting the pathology of the thyroid gland, which would not allow the disease to progress to hypothyroidism.

The thyrotoxic phase of autoimmune thyroiditis, doctors refrain from appointing thyreostatics - drugs that suppress thyroid function.With clearly defined symptoms of cardiac failure used beta-blockers.

If signs of hypothyroidism with thyroid replacement therapy is carried out preparations of thyroid hormones.Treatment is carried out under strict medical supervision of the clinical picture and the level of T-lymphocytes in the blood serum.

Complication autoimmune thyroiditis subacute thyroiditis shown glucocorticoids (prednisone).Simultaneously, for reducing autoantibody titer nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: indomethacin, indomethacin, Voltaren.

addition, patients prescribed drugs for correction of immunity, adaptogens and vitamins.When the thyroid gland hypertrophy and marked squeezing it mediastinal surgical treatment.

Power autoimmune thyroiditis

Power autoimmune thyroiditis patient should be enriched with protein, fiber and vitamins.Patients are advised to include in the diet of cereals, vegetables, cheese, herbs, dairy products, fruits, meat and fish.In drawing up the diet menu focuses on walnuts, seafood, pineapple guava and persimmon.