Rabies is an infectious disease occurring in the acute form.It arises as a result of the bite of an animal infected with rabies virus.The disease causes severe damage to the nervous system and ends, in most cases, fatal.
If we look at history, it is clear that until the 80s of the 19th century, there was no reliable means to combat this terrible disease.Since this is a contagious disease, the destruction of any rabid animal bites or burning of places did not give the desired effect.Almost all people who are bitten by infected animals, were condemned to death.Rabies vaccine has been successfully used for the first time the 6th July 1885.The honor of creating this vaccine belongs to the great French scientist Louis Pasteur.
rabies virus is resistant to low temperatures, phenol, antibiotics.
Expert Opinion: Any virus is resistant to antibiotics, as antibiotics affect bacteria.
can be destroyed by means of alkalis, acids or high temperatures.At a temperature of + 560 ° C the virus is complete
as the source of infection in 60% of cases, the dog act, foxes - in 24% of cats - 10%, wolves - 3%, and other animals - in 3% of cases.The animal is a carrier of the infection in about 5-10 days prior to the manifestation of outward signs of the disease and the virus continues to endure to the end of the disease.A person infected with rabies through the bite of a sick animal.Also, transmission of rabies virus can occur together with saliva.
Expert Opinion: Transmission of the virus occurs by it or licks wounds after being bitten.a large amount of virus found in the saliva.
The biggest danger occurs when the bites in the head and hands.
Once the rabies virus enters through damaged skin, is its rapid spread along the nerve trunks.Then, again in the direction of the nerve trunks, the virus spreads peripheral portions, resulting in the loss of substantially all of the nervous system.Rabies virus enters the salivary glands in the same way, and then, is released together with the patient's saliva.As nerve trunks virus is spreading at a rate of about 3 mm per hour.
symptoms of rabies in humans
Onset of the disease is characterized by an incubation period, the average duration of which is from 1 to 3 months.Time of its course depends on where the application of the bite.The shortest incubation observe the bite of the head, face or arms, the most long - when applied to the bite in his feet.
Expert's opinion: At the same time, this form of the disease is the most unfavorable.
At the initial stage of rabies in the area of the bite there are unpleasant sensations, despite the fact that the wound is fully healed.You may see inflammation at the site of the scar formed by swelling and redness.
Expert Opinion: Inflammation undoubtedly appear, because its manifestations and are redness, swelling, pain.
bites in the front part of the cause hallucinations of sight and smell.
Expert Opinion: These symptoms do not develop immediately, but it is much faster than the bite other parts of the body.
slight temperature increase - slightly above 370 ° C.In addition to visible symptoms, there are mental disorders: depression, anxiety, anguish, fear, sudden irritability.The patient comes lethargy, insularity, disturbances of appetite and sleep.The duration of the initial stage of about 1-3 days.
second step, which is also called the excitation stage, is characterized by increased reflex excitability.One prominent clinical manifestations of rabies is considered to hydrophobia or otherwise rabies.Attempts to drink water cause spasmodic contraction of the muscles, providing swallowing, as well as the auxiliary muscles of respiration.Cramps occur even at normal reminded of any liquid.
There is a sharp aggravation of all reactions to stimuli.This may be a bright light, a stream of air, a loud sound: they all cause bouts of seizures.The pulse quickens sharply, there is a strong dilation of the pupils, active sweating and salivation.attack is characterized by rapid excitation peak, accompanied by aggression and anger.At this time can occur heart failure and breathing.After 2-3 days, when there was no death, excitation at the peak of attack moves in facial paralysis, tongue, limbs.
last stage of rabies - a period of paralysis, in which falls the work of the cerebral cortex.Greatly reduces sensitivity and motor function.Cease hydrophobia seizures and convulsions.Very often it is mistaken for an offensive to improve the patient's condition.In fact - this is a sign of approaching death.It showed a significant increase in temperature to 420 ° C, the growth of hypotension and tachycardia.Death occurs in about 12-20 hours, the main reason - heart failure or respiratory center.
possible to cure rabies in humans?
If a person is bitten by an animal, there are signs of distress, need necessarily apply to the medical institution to provide the necessary assistance.It must be remembered that there are no effective methods of treatment of rabies.To reduce patient suffering, symptomatic therapy.To avoid the influence of external stimuli, the patient is placed in a special warm room, isolated from the noise, equipped with dimming.Drugs are administered in large doses.
Apply chlorpromazine, morphine, diphenhydramine, pantopon, chloral hydrate in the form of an enema.Extend the life of the patient may be using drugs or doing curariform use of mechanical ventilation.Apply rabies immunoglobulin, when there are clinical symptoms of the disease, ineffective and inappropriate.In general, the prognosis of the disease rabies, constantly unfavorable.There are very rare, isolated cases of recovery of patients who have undergone treatment and sick again after the end of the course.
Reduce the risk of rabies infection can help preventive measures.One of the main measures - regulation of number of animals, trapping stray cats and dogs, an annual vaccination of dogs against rabies.Persons risk of contracting rabies, courses on Immunization Practices.The best preventive measures - local treatment of bite location.If possible, the wound must be immediately and thoroughly as possible to clean up a 20% solution, which includes a medical liquid soap.With deep bites used jet washing soap solution using a catheter.It is not recommended to cauterize the wound or to impose on them the seams.