Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease belonging to the group of intestinal infections.The main cause of the disease is bacteria of the genus Salmonella that enter the human body.Every year registered more than 2 million cases of salmonellosis, so it can be named one of the most common infectious diseases in the world today.
huge number of the world's population are carriers of the infection without even knowing it.This means that their body is a multiplication of pathogenic bacteria, but the main features of the disease as such completely absent.Most carriers of infection were children under the age of 1 year.Outbreaks of the disease occur in the summer.
special perfidy of Salmonella is that getting in a wide variety of food, they do not change their taste.The presence of bacteria in them can be detected only after spending an appropriate laboratory testing.
main sources of infection are infected with salmonella food, man, sick with salmonellosis, or endured the disease, but the res
Symptoms of salmonellosis
main symptoms (signs) of salmonellosis are:
- Fever and severe headache;
- sharp increase in body temperature to 39 degrees;
- General weakness and aching bones;
- Decreased appetite;
first signs of salmonellosis occur, usually within a few hours after infection.The incubation period of the disease can take time from 8 hours to 3 days or more.Three days after infection entering the human body in the first signs of her lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.In this case the patient has severe pain in the navel, prolonged bouts of nausea and vomiting (up to 4 days).For the first days of the disease is characterized by persistent diarrhea.The stools are watery with or foamy character.Discharge may be greenish, often cal leaves with blood.Children who are not yet able to express their complaints verbally, when they develop the first signs of salmonellosis become moody, very restless sleep, refusing to take food.
The main symptoms of the disease in children are:
- sharp increase in body temperature;
- total intoxication, weakness, refusal of food, diarrhea (up to 10 times per day).The stools become watery and acquire a greenish tint.A week after the onset of the disease in the child's stool may appear blood veins.
Delays in treatment of infection in a young child or lack thereof can lead to death.Therefore it is necessary to bring to the clinic immediately at the first signs of salmonellosis baby to establish a diagnosis and proper treatment.Before the arrival of emergency assistance to the child should be isolated from other children and give him plenty of drink.
Diagnosis and treatment of salmonellosis
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out in the laboratory.Main infectious agents are easily detected in the feces of the patient.It is also recommended to analyze the product from which contamination might occur.
Treatment of salmonellosis passes in the infectious department of the hospital under strict medical supervision and is subject to certain mandatory diet and making antibiotics.To make up for the loss of fluid in the patient's body (due to diarrhea and vomiting), he is invited to drink plenty of liquids and brine (glyukosolan, rehydron).
essential drugs for the treatment of salmonellosis are: ampicillin, Biseptol, polymyxin M, chloramphenicol.As is known, the disease primarily affects the digestive system, so to improve its work are assigned such complexes of enzymes as mezim, panzinorm, festal.
In the case of a mild form of the disease can be assigned to specific viruses - bacteriophages that infect cells of Salmonella.To normalize the natural intestinal microflora doctor usually appoints probiotics: bifikol, baktisubtil, bifidum, etc.
Hospitalization is provided only in case of severe disease.In its mild form of the patient is carried out gastric lavage, then he can be sent home.At the same time the patient is prescribed bed rest, a special diet and the adoption of brine.The consequence of Salmonella is bacteria overgrowth, often accompanied by abdominal pain, stool disorders, etc.
Currently, vaccination against salmonella does not exist.The only prevention of this disease is personal hygiene, hygiene in food preparation.All edible products must pass the optimum heat treatment, hot vegetables and fruits should be thoroughly washed with water before serving.Also not recommended to purchase products of animal origin in unfamiliar places, and on dubious markets.Unfortunately, the high cost of food is not a guarantee of their security.Special care should be taken to the purchase of confectionery products, which include eggs.
When buying a cake you need to pay attention to the period of manufacture.Often the cause of mass disease salmonellosis are sold in stores cakes.To prevent the disease required to comply with sanitary regime in the food industry, as well as in catering establishments.
Salmonellosis - a serious condition that sometimes it is easier to prevent than to cure until the end and to get rid of its unpleasant consequences.Lack of treatment the infection can lead to very disappointing results.