Measles - an acute disease that belongs to a group of infectious caused by the measles virus.It manifested in the form of high temperature, catarrhal inflammation in the upper airways of the type of SARS, according to the type of eye conjunctivitis, as well as the appearance on the skin of a specific measles rash.
Measles - is vysokozaraznoe disease, susceptibility to it is close to 100%.After transferring measles formed strong immunity, through which more people recover from measles can be infected.
In connection with such high susceptibility must be strict adherence to the terms of vaccination, and the detection of an infected person - quarantine and control measures.
- 1 Causes Measles
- 2 Symptoms of measles
- 3 Treatment of measles
- 4 Complications of measles
- 5 measles prevention
measles virus is transmitted by airborne droplets.The mechanism of transmission - spray: as a result of isolation of measles virus from saliva, coug
source of infection with measles is a sick man, an infectious with the last two days of the incubation period before the fourth day from the beginning of rashes.
If the mother had previously measles, the child is born, it will not be able to catch measles infection three months of his life.The rest of the people can be infected with measles at any age.
Symptoms of measles
There are four periods of measles infection:
- incubation of between one to two weeks;
- catarrhal period;
- period rashes;
- period pigmentation.
incubation period covers the time from the first contact with the agent to the first manifestations of the disease.However, the infected person is already in the past two days, can be a source of infection to others, although there were no signs of the disease it has not yet to be.
second period - catarrhal - begins with a sudden rise in temperature to 38 - 400C.This measles begins as a banal flu: in addition to increasing the temperature there is a weakness, weakness, fatigue, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced or disappears altogether appetite.Total intoxication accompanied by catarrhal symptoms: a cough, runny nose, nasal congestion.After some time, inflamed conjunctiva of the eye - conjunctivitis develops.
during this period that a sick measles, can tell detection spots Bielsko-Koplik Filatov - a kind of rash, which can be found in the mucosa of the cheek.The spots are located in front of the molars.Typically, this symptom occurs after day from the beginning of the occurrence of catarrhal symptoms.
On the third - the fifth day from the beginning of the clinical picture of the disease in humans begin eruptions that take strict sequence.
Initially, the rash appears on the face, and the nasolabial triangle remains pale.The next day the rash being transferred to the upper limbs and the upper half of the body.The day after the rash is found on the lower extremities and the lower half of the body.
rash of measles has the form of spots of bright red or pink, which can merge with each other.Initially, small spots, but they quickly increase in size and merge.
When the rash becomes the highest prevalence, the temperature is the highest and reaches 40,50S.During the onset of the rash spots Belsky-Filatova-Koplik disappear.
rash on the body lasts up to a week, then it regresses or disappears.The rash fades in the same order as appears: first cleaned the face, then the upper body and arms, and then the lower half of the torso and legs.
At the site disappearing spots pigmentation occur, which disappears in two weeks.
Treatment of measles
Any suspected development of measles, you should immediately consult a doctor for further diagnosis and proper treatment assignment.
Self infection with measles is contraindicated, since it is possible the development of serious complications, including death.
Typically, diagnosis of measles infection is not working for a doctor.For the diagnosis of measles clinic used, if necessary, serological methods.
specific treatment for measles does not exist.Apply strict bed rest, should be taken in a large number of drinking.antipyretic used to reduce the temperature.For removal of catarrhal symptoms, you can use of drugs for the common cold, cough and conjunctivitis.If a sore throat, use funds from a sore throat, coughing and at - expectorants.To strengthen the immunity prescribed vitamin supplements.
As a rule, quite mild and moderate flow treatment is carried out at home disease.The patient is necessary to ensure complete rest, do darkening the room.
Complications of measles
Complications of measles can occur in both adults and children.However, most often they occur in children under five, as well as in adults older than twenty years.
Among the most common complications of measles release:
- otitis, evstaheity;
- lymphadenitis cervical lymph nodes;
- laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis;
biggest measles prevention is vaccination.Vaccinate children from one year of life.Revaccination is carried out in six years.
Vaccination against measles may be a monovalent or as MMR, which includes vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, and mumps.
immunity after vaccination is maintained up to fifteen years.Vaccination is contraindicated in pregnant women, ill with tuberculosis, leukemia or lymphoma, as well as persons with immunodeficiency, including HIV and AIDS infection.
If the family identified measles, prophylaxis is carried out in the house all living there.After contacting all patients exposed to isolate.