Botulism is nothing else but the infection enters the body with food-carriers botulism sticks.The danger of this disease lies in the fact that at the initial stage it can be easily confused with gastroenteritis.
In nature, the causative agent of botulism can be found at every turn, with the stick of botulism has the capacity for some time, having hidden, spores remain in the soil, and therefore penetrate into the vegetables, cereal grains, fruits, even meat andfish.To the bacteria began to multiply rapidly, you must be one condition: the absence of oxygen.During the multiplication of the bacteria secrete a neurotoxin - one of the most poisonous toxin that is not subject to degradation when exposed to gastric fluid.
main reason for the growth of bacteria and botulinum neurotoxins accumulation - a violation of canned food preparation technology, sausages and smoked meats, salted fish, and mushroom processing.
toxin does not get to recognize the taste - the taste of the product as its presenc
- 1 Symptoms of botulism
- 2 diagnosis of botulism
- 3 Treatment of botulism
- 4 Prevention of botulism
Symptoms of botulism
botulinum neurotoxin being felt like a couple of hours after the infection, and a few days later.The patient begins to feel the sudden weakness in the whole body, as well as a slight headache with fatigue.Intestine signals a botulism infection often severe constipation, and to solve this problem is not obtained even very strong drugs.Sometimes, instead of constipation in a patient starts vomiting and diarrhea.
Then symptoms appear, most clearly indicative of botulism - the patient is sharply reduced vision and hearing, he feels more and more weak and his dry mouth.The man begins to perceive the reality around in a haze: in the eyes of double vision, ptosis occurs even one century.Voice changes, the person starts to twang, and with the course of the disease and the voice can do a precipice.Another striking symptom of botulism - a person becomes hard to swallow, though he feels in his throat for a foreign body.In severe botulism when trying to drink the water people simply can not swallow it, and the water poured through the nasopharynx.Can be present all of the above symptoms, and various combinations thereof.Some of them may be omitted, but xerostomia is mandatory, and a strong feeling of constipation and weakness.
general in fifty percent of cases there is a picture of intoxication, similar in symptoms to gastroenteritis - weakness, headache, vomiting and diarrhea, the temperature of forty degrees.This condition, however, especially fever, is fast, and it come to replace the main symptoms of neurological disease.There violation pulse and heartbeat - it slows down, then accelerated significantly reduced blood pressure, heart sounds are heard poorly.death can occur as a result of respiratory failure.
If the disease is diagnosed and managed in time to overcome, then the recovery period takes place very hard and slowly gradually normalize neurological reflexes, vision slowly returned.However, the effects in this area in people who recover from botulism does not remain.
diagnosis of botulism
botulism is diagnosed by laboratory tests and, as a rule, the material studied a group of people at once, because the infection is usually a group character.We study the blood and vomit and gastric washings, feces and the remains of those products that are used as food.
Treatment of botulism
If you suspect botulism, a person must be immediately hospitalized.If you find at least one of the characteristic symptoms of botulism, immediately call an ambulance and the doctor is going to wash out the stomach should be first a simple boiled water, and then two percent solution of soda.The patient should be sure to drink plenty, and if you notice difficulty breathing, artificial respiration immediately.
Expert Opinion: Artificial respiration is carried out only when you stop your own spontaneous breathing.
Check whether remains of some products that the patient has recently eaten - from two hours to several days, which may accumulate neurotoxins.These products include mushrooms, smoked meats, including ham, as well as salted fish and canned.Send remnants of such food to the laboratory to be able to take the test for botulism.
The treatment of botulism usually includes the introduction of a special serum against botulism, which can neutralize the neurotoxins.To fight with spores in the intestine doctor must prescribe antibiotics.Be sure to also detoxification measures to reduce the toxicity of the body will be conducted.
To restore normal respiratory function is performed ventilation, and if observed swallowing disorder, the patient is prescribed the introduction of artificial nutrition through nutrient enema, or by gavage.
Prevention of botulism
Botulism - heavy and very dangerous disease, which is important to avoid, and for that you need to understand what preventive measures can help in this matter.
The main and the main thing - is the observance of hygiene rules and processing of raw materials for the preparation of sausages, preservation and long-term food storage.Exclude from eating those foods whose shelf life has expired or close to expiration.Inspect the jar of canned fish or meat - it should be no blistering, the liquid should not be troubled.Buy canned foods, especially canned mushrooms, only from the manufacturer, which can provide you with a certificate of quality for its products.