anemia - a disease that is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood and a reduction of red blood cells.Anemia - a very common disease.It occurs at all ages, but most often in children who suffer from rickets or malnutrition.The causes of anemia are: the slow pace of development of red blood cells, their destruction or loss of a large amount or not enough hemoglobin.
in infants observed these types of anemia: anemia and premature newborns, nutritional anemia, which develops due to improper feeding, anemia as a complication of acute infections, anemia and severe type Yaksh -Gayema.Alimentary anemia occurs in children younger than six months.It is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, the right amount of salt, proteins and vitamins.Most often it occurs in children who are bottle-fed.
Expert opinion: This anemia can occur at any age, but in the first half of the life chances of her sick anymore.
- 1 Symptoms of anemia in infants
- 2 degrees of anemia
- 3 Treatment of anemia in infants
Symptoms of anemiainfants
development of the disease is gradual, so the signs are also evident with time.First, there is a decrease in appetite and pale skin develops slowly (this is most noticeable on the nails, the lips and the inner surface of the eyelids) and hypotension muscles.Chair clay and dry, slightly enlarged liver.In infants, there is fatigue, may develop jaundice.
In anemia, called anemia Yaksh-Guy (this is usually severe anemia) is deteriorating mental and physical condition of the child, and all this is accompanied by a clear skin pallor.In anemia, severe pallor clear and pronounced, the liver is already heavily enlarged lymph nodes are also of considerable size, and the body temperature rises from time to time, there are noises in the heart and shortness of breath rare.Hemoglobin immediately reduced, but the number of red blood cells can remain normal.
It is important to recognize anemia in infants, as in diarrhea, with rapid dehydration thickens the blood and anemia often goes unrecognized.It is also to be distinguished from the false symptoms of anemia, in which the pallor of the skin caused by a spasm of the capillaries or deep location of the blood and the condition of the mucous membranes in the norm.
degrees of anemia
Anemia is divided into several degrees of severity, extent, these are characterized by the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.
are three basic degrees of severity: mild (mild stage when the hemoglobin level in the blood of above 90 g / l, but below normal);average (at this stage, the amount of hemoglobin in the range 90-70 g / l);and severe (with severe hemoglobin level is below 70 g / l).
Expert Opinion: These numbers are for adults.In infants, the change in hemoglobin levels takes place throughout the year and is significantly different from the level of hemoglobin in adults, so these figures can not be used to determine the severity of anemia in the child.
Treatment of anemia in infants
Treatment should not be delayed anemia.Any manifestation of certain symptoms listed above, you should immediately contact a specialist.Treatment of anemia in children under one year involves several complex therapies and includes four main principle dietary normalization, correction causes (often causes of iron deficiency), including in the diet of iron and other substances and form individual therapy.
in the diet reduces the amount of milk and dairy products, and added a variety of lures.In the light stages by diet can not restore normal kid for 7 weeks.In the severe stages of anemia diet alone will not be enough.In such cases, before the first diet to stimulate the child's body.To do this, assign receive liver, iron, and prescribe nonspecific proteotherapy, chemotherapy and fermentoterapii.
For babies up to a year liver served in shabby form of 30 grams per day, but the portions should not exceed 50 grams, children older than one year is required from 100 grams to 200 grams of liver per day.It is important to a balanced diet.In the diet, in addition to the products listed above, add the beans, nuts, oatmeal.
Expert opinion: In our opinion, can not be a child just over a year every day to give the liver in the above mentioned quantities.First, the liver after a few days it can not but what is, and just visible.Secondly, it will not be healthy and balanced diet.For example, the daily dose of calcium is 1 year This amount is contained in one kilogram of cheese.We're not going to eat a lot of every day?With the baby as well.For such situations and has developed special iron preparations, which are prescribed for anemia.
additional prevention method to combat anemia is a need for fresh air and sunlight, but you need to keep track of time in the sun, in order to avoid overheating, the need for a healthy, normal sleep and sturdy in a favorable climate.There should also be the prevention of colds, as well as the limitation of physical activity.
Children with iron deficiency anemia, you need to introduce solid foods for 3 weeks before.In the six-month age it is recommended to introduce solid foods meat, but at this time should be discarded from semolina, rice and cereal toloknyanoy, and give preference to buckwheat and barley.In infants, iron deficiency is most often caused by a deficiency of vitamins A, C, group B, PP and E, as well as trace elements such as copper, zinc, filievaya acid.Therefore, in the complex treatment of anemia of any degree required to enter complex multivitamin preparations.
Expert Opinion: Again with multivitamin preparations need to be careful, because many components can cause allergic reactions.In this situation it would be impossible to determine with accuracy the component that caused the allergy.
To prevent iron deficiency anemia in an infant, you should observe a few simple rules: the correct observance of the power and the regime of the day during pregnancy and timely diagnosis of the disease in the mother will avoid diseases in the child, as well as long-term breastfeeding and the use of complementary foods at the right timeIt helps to have your child avoid anemia.
first anemia treatment results can be seen after two weeks, and follow it possible for growth of reticulocytes (are young erythrocytes cells), they must be increased at least 2 times, as well as hemoglobin (who, in turn, should increasean approximately 10 g / l).The general improvement of hemoglobin and its output to the desired level occur after six months of continuous treatment.
But it is not necessary to complete this procedure.For the full output to the desired level needed 2 more months of treatment for prophylactic measures and to saturate the body vitamins necessary.If after a month of continuous treatment you do not see significant changes, it is an occasion to determine the cause.In most cases, treatment failure is caused by the emergence of chronic diseases, vitamin deficiency, an incorrect diagnosis or incorrect dosage.