- What is "blood pressure»
- norms by age
- What BP is considered normal
- norm in pregnant
- norm in children and adolescents
- How to measure
Blood pressure (BP) - an important indicator of health.It does not happen all the time, and the same can fluctuate throughout the day for various reasons:
- from stress;
- of physical activity;
- the weather changes.
slight deviation is considered normal if it happens occasionally and blood pressure returns to normal on their own.
What is "blood pressure»
Heart pressure both at home mistakenly called, BP - bl
measured indicators such as systolic blood pressure (top) and diastolic (bottom).The first result is obtained at the time of systole (contraction of the heart), the second - during diastole (relaxation).
BP values expressed by a double value as a fraction: the systolic is written at the top and the diastolic - bottom.Unit - mmHg.
difference between the upper and the lower is called pulse pressure.
norms by age
used to be that normal blood pressure with age may increase.When young it should be 120/80, is a man of 60 years admits values of 150/90.Today, doctors say that the ages of pressure standards for adults does not exist.Normal blood pressure is the same for all, with the exception of children.
High blood pressure is often recorded in older people
What BP is considered normal
ideal for an adult is considered to be the pressure of 120/80 mm Hg.The table below reflects the official rules, which adhere to the doctors.
|reduced normal||from 100/60 to 110/70|
|normal||from 110/70 to 130/85|
|high normal||130/85 to 139/89|
If the reduced pressure is not particularly at risk, the increased medical causes great concern, because the effects of it much harder.According to many doctors, at elevated atmospheric pressure increases the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, so the range of 130/85 to 139/89 called pregipertenziey.An increase in blood pressure from 120/80 to 140/90 risk of stroke is increased in 2 times more than 140/90 - 4 times.And especially for the men.They have a tendency to cardiovascular disease is higher and they are starting to get sick earlier than women (from 35 years old male, 50 - women).
Thus, we can conclude that if the earlier pressure 139/89 was considered normal, but today it is extreme.
pressure increase with age naturally considered as age-related changes occur in the blood vessels, which are more dense and less flexible.However, doctors still recommend to reduce the pressure to normal levels.
norm in pregnant
Up to 6 months of pressure must conform to the norm, that is, to be the same as in non-pregnant.
In pregnant women, the pressure is increased, but its significant growth is very dangerous for the health of the unborn child and the mother.Hypertension can lead to vascular spasm and fetal hypoxia, placental abruption, bleeding
Further due to hormonal changes it may rise, but no more than 10 units.pressure surges are usually observed in gestosis.When persistent increase in blood pressure during the period of gestation of the fetus requires treatment.
norm in children and adolescents
reduced pressure lower blood pressure levels in childhood depends on the age: the older the child, the higher it is.In addition, it can affect existing malformations, nervous system, vascular tone, and other factors.For children up to 10 years inclusive, the following rules:
- newborn (two weeks) - from 60/40 to 96/50;
- in 4 weeks - from 80/40 to 112/74;
- from two months to a year - from 90/50 to 112/74;
- two to three years - from 100/60 to 112/74;
- between three and five - from 100/60 to 116/76;
- six to ten - from 100/60 to 122/78.
After 10 years, the body begins hormonal changes, rapid growth of bones and organs, muscle mass increases.With the entry into adolescence (11-12 years) in children change indicators such as high and low pressure.The limits of this age - 110 / 70-126 / 82.In 13-15 years BP in adolescents becomes the same as an adult, that is, it can be up to 135/85.
Children vessels more elastic than those of adults, so the pressure are lower, and only by 13-15 years in its value is close to 120/80
How to measure
For accurate results, pressure must be correctly measured.Its value depends on many factors, notably the physical and emotional stress.So ideally you need to measure it in the morning, not getting up.In other cases it is necessary to rest about 10 minutes before the procedure.The tonometer must be at heart level, arm cuff put on the same horizontal level.For more reliable results need to measure blood pressure by 2-3 times with a short interval and calculate the average value.However, in AD held pulse measurement.
To measure blood pressure using a tonometer.There are mechanical (mercury and aneroid) and electronic (automatic and semi-automatic) devices.In models of mechanical switches air to the cuff is a manual process, the tones are heard by a stethoscope, the result can be seen on the dial.
Choice tonometer today is wide - from old mercury devices to compact electronic
The oldest - a mercury sphygmomanometers, which today is almost not used.They are bulky, require skills to use and careful handling because it is likely damage the bulb.Modern mechanical sphygmomanometers more compact and easy to operate.In general, mechanical devices are considered to be durable, reliable and accurate.A big plus is that their work and the result does not affect the interference, such as talking, stirring by hand, and others.
Electronic devices are very easy to use and does not require skills.Air is pumped from the unit automatically and manually in semiautomatic.The results (upper blood pressure, lower blood pressure and pulse) are displayed on the display.They are intended, rather, to measure the pressure at home.In health care, as a rule, do not use them.
the pressure necessary to follow throughout life as people suffering from cardiovascular disease, a lot, and high blood pressure is directly related to the development of dangerous complications.The main thing for people - it's a lifestyle.In most cases the only weight loss and salt restriction leads to a marked drop in blood pressure.