- Top BP
- Lower blood pressure
- What should be the difference between the upper and lower pressure
blood pressure - it is an important indicator of the state of the blood vessel system and healthwhole.Most often, speaking of pressure, mean arterial blood when the blood moves from heart.It is measured in millimeters of mercury, and is determined by the amount of blood that the heart pumps per unit of time and vascular resistance.BP is not the same in different vessels, depending on their size.The larger the vessel, the higher it is.It is the highest in the aorta, and the closer it is to the heart, the higher the value.During normal take pressure shoulder arteries, this is due to the convenience of measuring it.
called the systolic pressure, which is experiencing vascular wall at the time of systole (contraction of the heart muscle).BP is written as a fraction, and the number denotes systolic, so it is called the upper.What determines its value?Most often on the following factors:
- force of contraction of the heart muscle;
- tone of blood vessels and hence their resistance;
- number of heartbeats per unit of time.
ideal upper blood pressure - 120 mmHg.column.Normal ranges from 110 to 120. If it is greater than 120 but less than 140, say pregipotenzii.If blood pressure - 140 mmHg or higher, it is considered to be high.The diagnosis of "hypertension" is placed in the event that for a long time there is a persistent excess of the norm.Isolated cases of increase in blood pressure hypertension are not.
BP can constantly change throughout the day.This is related to physical activity and psycho-emotional stress.
reasons for raising the upper blood pressure
systolic pressure may rise in healthy people.This happens for the following reasons:
- under stress;
- during exercise;
- after consuming alcohol;
- when consuming salty foods, strong tea and coffee.
to pathological causes increase include:
- kidney disease;
- irregularities in the adrenal gland and thyroid gland;
- irregularities in the aortic valve.
Symptoms of high systolic blood pressure
If the upper pressure is raised, any symptoms may be absent, but the long-term and sustained hypertension appear the following symptoms:
- headache, usually in the neck;
- shortness of breath;
- flicker flies before his eyes.
Causes of low systolic blood pressure
It may temporarily decrease in the following cases:
- with fatigue;
- climate change and weather;
- in the first trimester of pregnancy;
- during exercise.
This state is not a deviation from the norm and rapidly normalized without any intervention.
Low systolic blood pressure is characterized by increased sleepiness and lethargy
Treatment required if lowering blood pressure - a symptom of diseases such as:
- disorders of the heart valve;
- bradycardia (heart rate reduction);
- brain injury.
Symptoms of low systolic blood pressure
If the upper pressure is reduced a person experiences:
- memory impairment.
Lower blood pressure
It shows how hard the blood pushes against the vascular wall at the time of diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle).This is referred to as diastolic pressure, and it is minimal.It depends on the tone of arteries, their elasticity, heart rate and total blood volume.Normal pressure is lower - 70-80 mm Hg.
Causes of increased diastolic blood pressure
Isolated cases of its increase is not a pathology, as well as a temporary increase in physical activity, emotional stress, changing weather conditions, etc.. d. On the hypertension can speak only for his steady increase.For more information about the reasons for raising the lower pressure and its treatment can be found here.
To increase may cause:
- kidney disease;
- high kidney pressure;
- malfunction of the adrenal and thyroid (increased production of hormones);
- diseases of the spine.
Symptoms of high blood pressure lower
following complaints may appear When the diastolic pressure
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath.
With long-term increase can be blurred vision, stroke, heart attack and stroke risk.
If elevated diastolic blood pressure increases the risk of strokes and heart attacks
Causes of low diastolic blood pressure
This symptom is typical for the following pathologies:
- disorders of the aorta;
- allergic reactions and others.
diastolic pressure may drop in women during pregnancy.This can cause hypoxia (oxygen starvation), which can be dangerous for the unborn child.For more information about the reasons for lowering the lower pressure and how to improve can be found here.
Symptoms of low diastolic blood pressure
If the lower pressure is reduced, there may be symptoms such as:
What should be the difference between the upper and lower pressure
We know how much pressure is optimal.It is 120/80 mm Hg.Hence, the normal difference between the upper and lower blood pressure is 40 units.It is called pulse pressure.If the difference increases to 65 or more, the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease increases significantly.
Most often a big difference between the upper and lower pressure is diagnosed in older people
large gap occurs most often in the elderly, because it is typical for their age isolated increase of the upper blood pressure.With age, the probability of isolated systolic hypertension is increasing, and particularly sharply after age 60.
Parent pulse pressure affects the extensibility of the aorta and nearby large arteries.The aorta has a high stretchability, which declines with age due to normal wear and tear of tissues.Elastic fibers are replaced by collagen, which are more rigid and less elastic.In addition, with age, many deposited on arterial walls cholesterol, lipids, and calcium salts.Thus, more calcium salts and collagen, the worse the aorta is stretched.The worse the arterial wall stretch, the greater the difference between the upper and lower pressure.
A high pulse pressure - a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular complications in elderly people.
Conclusion It is important to maintain optimal blood pressure elevation - 120/80 mm Hg.post (people with low blood pressure - 115/75).It should be remembered that pregipertenziya (from 120/80 to 139/89) - is the risk of cardiovascular complications.Every millimeter of mercury above 120/80 increases the chance by 1-2 per cent, especially in people over 40 years.