Arterial hypertension (hypertension) is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system, including amongst people of working age.This pathology requires constant monitoring and long-term treatment.Depending on the cause of possible use of different medicines or combinations thereof.But the specific dosage, frequency and duration of reception determines the cardiologist after a full examination of the patient.
main classes of drugs
drugs to treat hypertension include several major classes, but if you use any medicines you must comply with the general principles:
- can not pass on their own practices and to reduce the dose, that is, strictly follow the professional instructions;
- need constant monitoring of the pressure level (at least twice a day) and the condition of the patient (twice a year);
- patient needs to tune in to long-term care, and collaboration with the cardiologist, with any changes in the state of health should inform your doctor.
pressurized Treatment started with a single drug
This group combined substances that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.They expand blood vessels and lower blood pressure without causing any effect on heart muscle without changing the ejection fraction and heart rate.Since they are output mainly in the urine and cause relaxation of smooth muscles, their use is not recommended in patients with renal diseases that are associated with changes in their blood.However, they are well suited to patients with heart failure and diabetes.
ACE inhibitors lead to the expansion of peripheral blood vessels and reduce the pressure without affecting myocardial
Among the short-drugs that are more likely to take once for immediate results, the most common is Captopril.When sublingually (under the tongue) received, it begins to act after a few minutes, and the maximum effect is observed for 1-2 hours.
enalapril and Monopril - drugs that require a double reception, they are often prescribed for chronic treatment of hypertension.Once a day you can take Prestarium, which is as effective as other representatives of this class.
Among the side effects during drug treatment of hypertension is the most common cough.The mechanism of its occurrence is associated with allergic reactions and swelling of the bronchial mucosa.It usually develops in the first few days of taking the drugs, and passes through the 12-24 hours after their withdrawal.
beta-adrenergic receptors are well suited for the treatment of hypertension, accompanied by tachycardia.
As a result of these drugs decreased heart rate, decreased cardiac output, decelerated central excitatory impulses that ultimately leads to a decrease in pressure.It is very important that the hypotensive effect does not depend on physical activity and body position and long-term use is not addictive.
Among the side effects of this group are the most severe bronchospasm and increased blood sugar.Therefore, their purpose is contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma and diabetes.In connection with the inhibition of myocardial contractility with caution should be applied when left ventricular failure and bradycardia.
Diuretics Diuretics increase the excretion of water and sodium from the body, thus reducing the fluid volume.They are effective in renal failure as increase blood flow and improve their work.Use diuretics for high blood pressure should be controlled by the volume of urine, so as not to cause dehydration.
Diuretics increase renal blood flow and increases the excretion of urine, thereby reducing intravascular fluid volume
There are many different mechanism of action of diuretics, the selection is carried out individually, taking into account all the characteristics of the patient.In urgent situations, resort to intravenous Lasix, as it has the most pronounced effect.
Calcium channel blockers
whether durietiki hypertension Help?
Calcium antagonists prevent the entry of ions into the cell and reduce the ability of the heart muscle to contract.In addition, they improve coronary blood flow and lead to increased peripheral arteries.Therefore, the appointment of their justified in people with hypertension and coronary heart disease at the same time.
In this group there are representatives who have a rapid effect.Corinfar kordafleks or when taking a language begin to act quite quickly and can be used in emergency situations.Side effects are mainly related to the expansion of peripheral blood vessels, which results in redness and a local increase in temperature.In some cases, the reception of these drugs can lead to the appearance of lower limb edema.
Among this group of drugs most important is nitroglycerin.It leads to an expansion of arteries and veins, and reducing the pressure.Typically, its scope is limited to angina, but in some cases it can be used at higher pressures.Usually it is prescribed for hypertensive crises in the form of a drip.
treat hypertension in the early stages of its development are not necessarily using the medication.
In some cases, helping a lifestyle change, reduction of excess weight or physical education classes.
Strengthening the nervous system depressants
Reception at elevated stress on the nervous system may be useful if the hypertension is associated with the release of stress hormones into the bloodstream.To strengthen the body can be used hardening, sports, walking outdoors.Most importantly, physical activity is enjoyable and brings only positive emotions.
Reasonable alternating periods of work and leisure can lead to the fact that the pressure drop without medication.Doctors recommend sleeping at least 8 hours a day, preferably at night.People forced to work on nonstandard schedule more likely to suffer from hypertension than those who work strictly in the daytime.
Water and salt regime
Compliance water regime and a salt-free diet - the most important components of successful treatment of hypertension.The day allowed to drink no more than one and a half liters of water and use no more than five grams of salt.Often in violation of this rule even welcome several groups of drugs ineffective.
Pharmacotherapy of hypertension should be individualized on the basis of survey data.Due to the fact that the effect of antihypertensive drugs can be very severe, it is necessary to begin treatment with small dosages, gradually increasing up to their optimum.Therefore it is very important to the continued cooperation of the doctor and the patient.Drug-free methods of dealing with high blood pressure have an important role, and the observance of a few simple rules greatly simplifies the task of the cardiologist.