One of the most formidable external bleeding are considered arterial.This is due to the fact that in a short time, they can cause massive blood loss, which is determined by the diameter of the damaged artery.Often this is extremely difficult to stop arterial bleeding, which leads to a rapid and general condition weighting fatal.These features require everyone to know their symptoms and how to stop.

most frequent causes of

In peacetime, arterial bleeding occur less frequently compared with others of their species.This is due to occurrence of deep enough arterial vessels, particularly large diameter.The most common causes of their occurrence are knife stab wounds and open fractures with bone fragments damage arteries.In wartime, this type of bleeding is more common as a result of mine explosion and gunshot wounds to the extremities and neck.

Diagnostic criteria

detect external bleeding is not difficult, but to understand its origin - a difficult task.But time revealed signs of arterial bleeding, are

the key to timely and correct it stops.After all, if the bleeding vessel verified incorrectly, it will lead to an incorrect use of the volume of activities that can not only help with his arrest, but also enhance the blood loss.

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Clinical signs and symptoms consist of:

  1. presence of injury or bone fracture in typical places of location of large arteries (the internal surface of the shoulders, upper arms, thighs, popliteal and cubital fossa, the anterior-lateral surface of the neck);
  2. flow of blood from the wound.It is the most important diagnostic criterion by which we can determine the detail with the diagnosis.Bleeding from an artery seen pulsating jet of scarlet, bright red blood from the wound in typical locations;
  3. Violation of pulsation of the arteries located below the injured and bleeding vessel;
  4. quick and progressive loss of blood in violation of the patient's general condition (weakness, dizziness, pale skin, tachycardia, hypotension);
  5. Cooling wounded limb.

Particular types of arterial bleeding

deserve special attention when injured arterial bleeding from vessels of the neck (carotid artery and its branches).All the complexity and gravity of the situation is that even a minimal loss of blood from these arteries is fraught with the development of cerebral blood flow and cerebral edema.At the same time the condition of patients worsens, they lose consciousness and who are immersed in the brain, which is not always allowed even after the final stop arterial bleeding and restoring blood loss.

brain ischemia requires a longer recovery period than any other organ.Therefore, the treatment of bleeding is required to connect the preparations improving blood circulation and metabolic processes in the damaged brain cells.

Similar threats arise at high wounds extremity arteries.If a long period of time can not stop the bleeding, that causes ischemic changes the whole arm or leg with their further transformation into a permanent and gangrene.Even if they do not develop, then the duration of the violation of the integrity of the blood vessel over 2-6 hours, there is a high risk of developing reperfusion syndrome, due to absorption of toxic products in the blood of the affected limb.Therefore, appropriate fluid therapy for the prevention of complications have to be carried out after reperfusion.

point pridavlivaniya arteries
Typical points finger pridavlivaniya bleeding arteries

First Aid Measures for temporary stop bleeding

Virtually all forecasts with arterial bleeding depend on the timeliness and accuracy of first aid.It is a temporal overlap bleeding vessel to stop the blood loss during transportation of the injured to hospital.The smaller the length of this period, the better the prognosis for the patient.Therefore everyone should be aware of what to do in such a situation.

way to temporarily stop arterial bleeding:

  1. tourniquet - Special rubber medical devices, which circularly compressed limb above the wound site.Thus there is overlap of the artery and the cessation of blood flow in it.Instead, harness any improvised means on the same principle can be used;
  2. Overlay twist by analogy with the wiring;
  3. percutaneous Finger pressing the main arteries in typical places of pulsation (in the neck, the middle third of the inner surface of the shoulder, in the lower third of the forearm, groin areas);
  4. Squeezing fingers bleeding vessel in the wound;
  5. Tight plugging bleeding wound with gauze soaked with hydrogen peroxide with a further strong pridavlivaniya wounds.This and the previous method are shown in the case of impossibility of a tourniquet or finger pressing vessels;
  6. When complete break large artery health workers temporary artificial prosthesis in the form of tubes connecting the two ends of the vessel may be imposed.This will enable to save the limb gangrene during transportation.

Useful video:

final stop bleeding

After delivery of the victim to a hospital, he transferred to the general or vascular surgeon hands.Further tactics depends on the diameter of the affected artery and the nature of her injuries.Differentiated strategy provides for the possibility of such variants final stop arterial bleeding:

  1. simple suturing wounds in the artery;
  2. Ligation of the damaged vessel.Appropriate in its small diameter and the presence of other sources of blood supply to the affected area;
  3. Full or partial prosthesis of the damaged portion of the artery.It assumes its replacement by a patch of their own veins or artificial prosthesis.

After the operation the wound is sutured and installed drainage to evaluate the usefulness of stopping bleeding from an artery, infusion is performed and replacement therapy for reperfusion syndrome.

Things to know about the correct application of the harness

Where superimposed 10-20 cm above the bleeding wound
As applied evenly to keep the tension at circular tours harness
How to protect your skin Layunder the harness pad of soft tissue
How long to keep winter less than an hour;

summer and 2 hours
How to be in long-term application of harness laxative for a few minutes after tamponade the wound, and then again applied
Additionally, you need to specify Record tourniquet time

Arterial bleeding, thoughand dangerous problem, but it resolved very well with the right approach.The main thing to remember about the key points to assist such patients.