Questions relating to bleeding, will never lose its relevance.After all, as it were, medicine has learned not to deal with them, will still be outstanding issues in some cases.This is especially important in relation to massive blood loss, in which it is crucial to instantly recognize specific types of bleeding that will provide the right assistance.And though, at first glance, nothing complicated about it, but even the most experienced physicians in some critical situations can make mistakes, lost when a large amount of blood.Therefore, everyone should know what it looks like a particular kind of bleeding events, and how much should be given a while.

General classification

Separation of bleeding into different kinds of bears greater expediency in relation to ease the definition of medical tactics at the different stages of care.Wherever it is not provided, all doctors know its precise algorithm.This approach minimizes the amount of time and reduces the amount of blood loss as possible.People who are

not connected with the medicine should also know the main features and possible types of bleeding, to help themselves or their loved ones if necessary.

classification is given in the form of a table.

external bleeding (blood outflow of direct contact with the external environment) internal bleeding (blood outpouring has no direct contact with the environment)
  1. capillary;
  2. Arterial;
  3. Venous;
  4. Mixed.
  1. in the free abdominal cavity;
  2. hemorrhages in internal organs (intraorganic hematoma);
  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding.
The magnitude of blood loss with any bleeding
  1. Track and hemorrhage;
  2. moderately severe blood loss;
  3. Heavy blood loss;
  4. extremely heavy blood loss.

Capillary bleeding

The most common form of external bleeding - a capillary.There are in any traumatic injuries in violation of the integrity of the skin.Manifest nonintensive uniform flow of blood from the wound as a result of damage to the capillaries (the smallest blood vessels of the body).Rarely lead to severe blood loss, as in most cases, stop yourself.It does not pose any difficulties for the diagnosis or for treatment.The exception is the extensive superficial wounds in which the long-term neglect of health care-can cause a large loss of blood.

Venous bleeding

Venous bleeding occur in the superficial and deep wounds of all sizes, at which violated the integrity of the subcutaneous or intermuscular veins.Thus there is a sufficiently strong bleeding.Clinically, venous bleeding may recognize these symptoms:

  • Dark blood;
  • Bleeding is very strong on the type of the constant flow of blood from the wound;
  • Reduced at pridavlivaniya area below the injury.

Venous bleeding is extremely dangerous, if not timely medical care is provided.In this case, in the short term blood loss occurs until the shock state.They rarely stop on their own, so they ignore the stop is not necessary.Superficial veins bleed less intense, deep damage - causing profuse bleeding.

arterial and venous bleeding
Differences between blood (a) and venous (b)

bleeding Arterial bleeding

Given the deep location of the arteries in the tissues, their damage is found less often.The most common causes - a knife, gunshot and mine-explosive wounds.In everyday life this may be puncture wounds thin and narrow objects.Clinically suspected arterial bleeding can be on such grounds:

  1. bright red blood;
  2. expires in a pulsating jet;
  3. very intense;
  4. not reduced in the normal pridavlivaniya wound or tissue above and below it;
  5. Localization wound corresponds to the projection of large artery stroke.

usually arterial bleeding is very intense and quickly lead to massive blood loss and shock.If there is a complete rupture the artery, then just one minute you can lose almost the entire blood volume.Therefore, such a bleeding require immediate assistance.

internal bleeding

Advised to read:

patient examination

What are the main symptoms of internal bleeding?

Unlike external bleeding, for which one can not ignore their symptoms, internal more insidious.After recognizing them is not so easy.They usually manifest themselves when old enough blood loss.Therefore, it is important to know all the possible symptoms of this dangerous condition.These include:

  1. general weakness and drowsiness;
  2. Discomfort or pain in the abdomen;
  3. Unmotivated decrease in blood pressure;
  4. rapid pulse;
  5. skin pallor;
  6. appearance of pain in the neck of one of the halves, appearing in a horizontal position, and decreasing in the vertical (symptom Roly-Poly).

of internal bleeding is preceded by closed or penetrating wounds of the abdomen, waist, rib fractures, stab, stab or gunshot injuries.This results in damage to the internal organs, causing violation of the integrity of blood vessels and bleeding.As a result - the accumulation of blood in the abdomen, chest, soaking it damaged organ or visceral adipose tissue (hematoma).

Such bleeding can progress at lightning speed, but also can grow for several days after the injury.All depends on the intensity and extent of the injured organ damage.Usually it suffers from spleen, liver less.At their one-stage rupture bleeding occurs immediately when dvuhmomentnom first break occurs intraorganic hematoma that ruptures in a few days, causing a momentary increase in weight of the patient.

Gastrointestinal bleeding

If you look to the end, this kind of bleeding can not be classified clearly.After the blood into the lumen ends of the gastrointestinal tract, but it is contacted with air.But this is not as important as finding the symptoms of such a state.After all, the timeliness sometimes the patient's life depends on it.Symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding may be considered:

  1. general weakness and dizziness;
  2. rapid pulse and reduced pressure;
  3. skin pallor;
  4. vomiting blood or brown mass;
  5. liquid bloody or thick black stool.

Gastrointestinal bleeding are at a peptic ulcer, tumor diseases and various necrotic processes in the digestive tract mucosa and some other diseases.Therefore, people with such pathology should always be aware of the possibility of bleeding in the case of their occurrence is required to seek medical care.

Video tutorials on first aid for bleeding:

What bleeding

Medical tactic is to be differentiated, depending on the specific type of bleeding.There is a total of measures that should be carried out in any of its form.All the specific manipulations are targeted because of their improper provision may harm the patient.The general measures of assistance for bleeding include:

  1. Place the victim in a horizontal position;
  2. Follow consciousness, pulse and blood pressure;
  3. Wash bleeding wound with hydrogen peroxide and apply a pressure bandage clean;
  4. If possible, attach the cold source to the bleeding;
  5. transport the patient to the nearest facility.
These events never harm, regardless of the source and characteristics of the bleeding.

Differentiated tactics shown in tabular form.

bleeding view volume necessary measures
First Aid (temporary stop bleeding) Specialized medical services (final stop bleeding)
Capillary
  1. Wash the wound with antiseptic;
  2. Close sterile dry or moistened with peroxide bandage.
stitching the wound, if necessary.
Venous
  1. Run event, as in capillary bleeding;
  2. Apply a pressure bandage, grabbing the wound and underlying portions of the above (about 10-15 cm).
  1. if damaged superficial veins made their dressing and stitching wounds;
  2. If the damage deep vein sutured defect in the vein and the skin wound.
Arterial
  1. perform common activities;
  2. Finger compression of the bleeding vessel in the wound;
  3. Tight plugging the wound bandage soaked in peroxide;
  4. tourniquet above the place of injury.
Closure or prosthesis damaged artery with subsequent suturing wounds.
Internal and gastrointestinal bleeding General measures for bleeding are typical of pre-hospital stage.
  1. Introduction hemostatic agents;
  2. Infusion therapy to compensate for blood loss;
  3. Observation;
  4. Surgical treatment with signs of ongoing bleeding.

tourniquet Rules

harness should be imposed exclusively with arterial bleeding.His erroneous use in venous bleeding will lead to their strengthening.Feature proper tourniquet:

  1. superimposed on the affected segment of not less than 20 cm away from the wound.Possible.Lower arrangement is permissible only if it is impossible to perform the classic guide;
  2. on the skin under the tourniquet bandage fabric is laid;
  3. As the harness can be used special tourniquet available materials or replacing it;
  4. first circular tours tourniquet around the limb less tight.After them, should impose a tight tours;
  5. After correctly tourniquet bleeding decreases.If it does not, it says, or abuse its imposition, or the lack of evidence for this;
  6. permissible duration of retention harness limbs should not exceed 2 hours in summer and 1-1.5 hours in winter;
  7. If a tourniquet is not possible (neck injuries, high shoulder and hip injuries) it is replaced with other methods to stop bleeding: the outer finger pridavlivaniya pulsating vessel above the wound or directly into it.
plait overlay
proper tourniquet, as one way to stop arterial bleeding

Only strict adherence to the algorithms determine the type of bleeding and step execution of therapeutic measures can indeed effectively help in the fight against this problem.Remember the general rule and then you can save yourself and your family from the dangerous complications of any bleeding.