Although any bleeding never can be considered the norm, but it should be noted and the curative effects of blood loss.It's no wonder not so long ago the official medicine enjoyed bloodletting as one of the main therapeutic measures for many diseases.This has an undeniable logic, as evidenced by the frequency of spontaneously developing nosebleeds.They no one has caused fatal damage.Hard to imagine, but if we analyze the data, we find that nosebleed potentially save millions of lives by any alarm about the serious health problems or reduce the critical vascular stress.About these features and their causes will be discussed in this article.

How it can be

Bleeding from the nose is a violation of the integrity of the blood vessels of the mucous membrane of the region.Their network is very ample and superficial.These features make this zone on the one hand, subject and sensitive to external influences, on the other, the natural environment of increased reset voltage in the bloodstream of an organism.Af

ter all sources of blood supply to the nasal cavity extend substantially from the aorta (the largest vessel of the body), as a direct regulator of hydrodynamic processes and blood pressure.Another point in the mechanisms of the nasal bleeding associated with blood vessel structure and ability to self-clotting and stop bleeding.

These data indicate such possible variants of nosebleeds:

  1. Symptoms may occur from minimal effects outside or blood pressure fluctuations.On the one hand this is bad, because the person has to constantly deal with the problem of nasal bleeding, on the other - their appearance safeguard its internal organs from hemorrhage in them;
  2. may be minor and short-lived.This refers to the most favorable options nosebleeds.Their characteristics are determined by the depth of occurrence of the vessels;
  3. can be heavy and prolonged.Such bleeding symptoms are not only able to save the man, but the cause of death, because they stop may be very great difficulties.
possibility of occurrence of epistaxis, its intensity and the ability to self-stop depends on the structure and location of the bleeding vessels, blood pressure and blood clotting properties.These three links should be directed diagnosis and treatment of this problem.

main reasons

Hypertensive crisis

One of the most common causes of nosebleeds in adults is to increase blood pressure.In most cases, such a condition characterized by hypertension, especially at the time of hypertensive crisis (critical pressure increase).These people very rarely have hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain), since excess pressure quickly finds a way out of the flow of blood from the nose.Therefore, if such a condition occurs, it tends to be systematically repeated.The body thus tries to protect vital organs from damage by implementing a kind of treatment.

Usually, nasal bleeding symptoms on a background of hypertensive crisis stopped on their own after lowering blood pressure.But it does not always happen and it has to stop work on all three links of the problem.If such bleeding occur constantly, it is a sign of improper treatment of hypertension and requires the selection of a suitable drug correction.

Injury nose

In the role of another causes of nosebleeds are the traumatic injuries.A clear gradation in strength traumatic factor does not exist, and can not be.This means that some people have for the occurrence of bleeding enough light contact the outside or inside of the nose with damaging element, in others it can occur only in very severe injuries.Such ability depends largely on the local anatomical features and the location of vascular structures.Deeper capillaries less susceptible to rupture.But if it occurs, stop the bleeding is so difficult.Superficial blood vessels are injured very easily, but even severe bleeding are less problematic with regard to its stop.

child
Children nosebleeds may occur as a result of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and an overdose of nasal drops on a background of viral infections

diseases nasopharynx

acute and chronic pathological conditions on the part of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat or sinuses often accompanied by bleeding.The basis of their appearance are inflammatory diseases with atrophy (dysplasia) of the mucous membrane.Pi This vessels are exposed, that causes their strong sensitivity and vulnerability.As a result, sudden and persistent bleeding or the occurrence of mucosal with minimal contact with any objects and means of hygienic care.

Such conditions can occur in diseases such:

  1. Atrophic rhinitis - inflammation of the lining of the nose, accompanied by its destruction;
  2. erosions and ulcers in the nasal cavity;
  3. Chronic sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses in the form of sinusitis, sinusitis, etmoidita);
  4. Acute viral infections, especially influenza;
  5. Brittle vessels nasal cavity against the general hypothermia, overheating or prolonged use of vasoconstrictor nasal drops (Naphthyzinum, xylometazoline, nazivin, Otrivin, etc.).Most often occurs in children.

nasopharyngeal tumors

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Any neoplastic lesions in the cavity of the nasopharynx, sooner or later, end epistaxis.It may occur spontaneously, and blowing the nose or running loads.Bleeding may be preceded by abundant mucous discharge or brown over time.Of the main tumor, which often can grow in the nasopharynx in the elderly are isolated:

  1. Cancer;
  2. adenocarcinoma (glandular cancer);
  3. Simple and malignizovanny (rebirth, malignancy) polyp;
  4. tumors of bone (oseosarkoma, osteoma);
  5. bow form of endometriosis.

Last disease, although rare, but is of particular interest in relation to the causes of bleeding.It is based on the degeneration of the nasal mucosa, which is identical to the structure of the inner lining of the uterus.Thus, with each such monthly women suffer nosebleeds.

neuro-psychological and physical stress

If a person is constantly in a state of physical or mental stress, sooner or later, it will lead to the disruption of the mechanisms of autonomic regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure.As a result, frequent spontaneous bleeding resulting from the change of body position, getting up from the bed, the usual torso forward.This increases the speed and volume of blood flow in vessels of the head, which increases the local pressure.In the context of violations of their ability to change their tone and adapt to fluctuations in its insolvent vessels simply burst, manifested bleeding from the nose.

Diseases of the blood

One of the most important abilities of the blood system retained in the lumen of blood vessels is a possibility of its collapse.This is called hemostasis.Direct assignment of the system - the blood in maintaining a sufficiently viscous state, so it does not leave the vascular bed, and could close the most damaged vessels clots in case of damage.There are diseases which are called coagulopathy.Symptoms of nasal bleeding may occur when:

  1. Hemophilia (birth defects of clotting factors);
  2. Reception krovorazzhizhayuschih drugs;
  3. thrombocytopenic purpura;
  4. bleeding disorders during pregnancy;
  5. leukemia;
  6. intoxication;

part of the primary manifestations of these diseases is becoming excessive bleeding from the nose, even for no apparent reason.

Tamponade of the nasal cavity
tamponade of the nasal cavity - a forced action to stop the ongoing epistaxis

Events and

emergency medical care during the occurrence of bleeding is primary is not so important to determine its origin, how to help the patient.The set of measures at different stages is given in the form of a table.

Immediate first aid measures (which may be provided by way of self-help and mutual aid) Medical care and treatment (it turns out the employees of medical institutions or ambulance)
  1. Give a man half upright position with the lowered feet.This will reduce the blood supply of the head and keep the blood in the lower extremities;
  2. Slightly tilt your head to the opposite, half bleeding nose side;
  3. is strictly forbidden to throw back his head.This prevention of blood flowing into the respiratory tract;
  4. Set in the bleeding nostril with gauze or a cotton swab soaked in 3% hydrogen peroxide;
  5. giving set swab by squeezing the respective nostrils from the outside for a few minutes.
  1. Performing emergency measures listed in the previous section;
  2. front nose tamponade.It is a tight unit, peroxide-impregnated gauze swab in the anterior nasal cavity;
  3. Cauterisation mucous diatermokoagulyatorom;
  4. rear nasal tamponade.More complex event in which the whole plugging the nasal cavity;
  5. blood pressure measurement, conduct a general analysis of blood and other diagnostic techniques to establish the causes of bleeding;
  6. Introduction hemostatic medications: aminocaproic acid, etamzilat;
  7. Lowering blood pressure (if there are signs of its increase).

Bleeding from the nose can not be interpreted unambiguously.There should be no formulaic approach.It is necessary to eliminate the worst reasons for its occurrence.Only then you can safely engage in all the other, less dangerous conditions.This approach can save a person from the threats pointed nosebleeds.