problems of differential diagnosis between pulmonary and gastro-intestinal bleeding sometimes arise even among experts specialized centers for the treatment of these problems.On the ordinary man in this respect we do not go.Fortunately, not all cases are so typical and pulmonary hemorrhage can recognize each.The main thing to know what to look for.
Coughing up blood and coughing up blood
Naturally, if the source of bleeding is in the bronchial-pulmonary system, the appearance of blood in it can not go unnoticed.In general, any contents of the bronchi causes irritation and triggers the cough reflex.It is the result of the cough, in which massively released red blood or its mixture with slime suggests pulmonary hemorrhage.Sometimes it grows very slowly, for a long time.Then about it signals a persistent hemoptysis (presence of small streaks of blood or bloody sputum from coughing).
But these signs of pulmonary hemorrhage has its "pitfalls".First of all it concerns the assessment of the presence of suc
The same situation occurs with the assessment of expectorated sputum.It is important to determine the differences between gastric and pulmonary hemorrhage.There are three possible situations:
- non-intensive bleeding from the lungs, accompanied by constant ingestion of blood.When its amount is too large, it provokes bloody vomiting and dark feces, which can be mistaken for stomach bleeding;
- blood clotted Isolation, accompanied by simultaneous coughing and vomiting.In this case it is very difficult to understand the true source of the problem, making it difficult to correct treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage;
- frothy, blood-tinged sputum favors pulmonary hemorrhage.
important to pay attention to the symptoms that are common to any type of bleeding.Their importance is that they help to determine the degree of the estimated blood loss and the severity of the patient at all.Therefore, they should be evaluated:
- Pale and earthy grayish skin tone;
- Shortness of breath and respiratory rate (more than 18-20 / min);
- patient's consciousness and behavior;
- Possibility of independent travel;
- Frequent palpitations (tachycardia - increased heart rate greater than 90 beats / min);
- degree of lowering blood pressure (below 100/60).
The stronger is bleeding and blood loss, the more they will be determined.From this assistance depends on the patient.
Lung cancer - the most common cause of pulmonary hemorrhage
Pulmonary haemorrhage never occurs just on the background of full health.Rarely him and lead to injury.Its presence always indicates a serious chronic disease of the bronchial tree or the system or the lung tissue itself.The main sources are:
- decaying lung cancer;
- Tumors growing in the lumen of the bronchi;
- destructive pulmonary tuberculosis with a long history;
- Acute abscess and gangrene;
- Pulmonary embolism;
- Congenital malformations of the heart and lungs in children.
Regardless of the cause of pulmonary hemorrhage, it is always characterized by a progressive course.This is due to the presence of two powerful sources of blood supply with very intense blood flow and pressure in them.After pulmonary vessels come directly from the heart.Therefore, if there is hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage, it is extremely difficult to stop.
What can help
dry cough heart
Since pulmonary hemorrhage refers to serious condition, medical treatment must begin as soon as possible.At the first stage the scope of activities is very limited and human pre-medical assistance can be provided in such a way:
- Give half upright position with lowered legs and feet, preferably polubokom.This will reduce the pressure in the lung vessels and contribute to its normal excretion from the bronchial tubes;
- Reassure the patient;
- urgently hospitalized in the nearest medical institution.
In terms of any hospital emergency room in pulmonary bleeding a little wider, but does not always lead to the desired result.It includes:
- Holding X-ray lung examination.Only then can roughly determine the cause of the problem;
- Infusion therapy with salt and colloidal solutions (isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer, Trisol, reosorbilakt, Refortan, stabizol);
- Hemostatic drugs (hemostatic): etamzilat, menadione, aminocaproic acid;
- instiljatsii humidified oxygen;
- diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy - can help to identify and somehow influence the source of bleeding in the case of its localization in the major bronchi;
- Emergency operation.As emergency care in pulmonary bleeding occurs only when the source known in advance when its performance can bring effect.Unfortunately, this may very rarely.