respiratory diseases are classified according to the place of localization of the pathological process, its severity, and signs of adverse effects.The most unfavorable in its current chronic pharyngitis in adults: a condition characterized by a prolonged course with pronounced periods of exacerbations.Pathogenic microflora is present almost always have a negative effect on the immune system.Amazed mucous membrane structure, which loses its protective function, inflamed, or expands on the contrary, will atrophy.Depending on the classification of the forms of the disease is carried out.Gradually, in the pathological process involves the lymphatic system of the oropharynx.Lymph nodes can be formed foci of chronic inflammation.
cause of chronic pharyngitis in adults may be factors such as:
- frequent colds, are not accompanied by adequate treatment of high-grade;
- presence of tonsillitis, carious lesions in the oral cavity;
- eating irritating spices and hot food / drinks;
- prolonged tobacco smoking and the abuse of alcoholic beverages;
- living in areas heavily polluted atmosphere;
- delayed-type allergic reactions;
- gastroesophageal reflux disease with regular reflux of hydrochloric acid into the esophagus to the larynx;
- professional employment in hazardous industries (chemical, metallurgical, food companies).
Prevention of chronic pharyngitis in adults is to avoid the bad habits, the use of personal protective equipment when working in hazardous environments, regular visits to the dentist, proper treatment of colds and GERD.
Chronic catarrhal and granulosa, subatrophic and atrophic, hypertrophic pharyngitis in adults
Chronic pharyngitis in adults divided into the stages of its flow, which have a typical clinical symptoms:
- catarrhal chronic pharyngitis develops as a primary form of disease: acute inflammationmucosa with hypertrophy and pulmonary edema;
- with chronic pharyngitis granulosa develop multiple nodules in the submucosa: lost ability to produce mucous secretion, the patient is constantly experiencing dry mouth;
- hypertrophic form is characterized by an abnormal growth of tissue, which leads to disruption of the process of swallowing and the constant presence of a foreign body sensation in the throat;
- subatrophic and atrophic chronic pharyngitis - the most dangerous state in which there is a high risk of degeneration of the mucous membranes of cells in cancerous tumors, there is death of tissue cells.
When catarrhal form is important to the exception of unfavorable factors that cause chronic pharyngitis in adults.It is necessary to give up smoking, alcohol and spicy / hot food.If possible, change the place of work, if the previous is associated with difficulty in a contaminated atmosphere.It is necessary to exclude the possibility of allergic reactions.
Hypertrophic chronic pharyngitis is characterized by the presence of a strong hysterical cough, dry type with a minimum amount of sputum.There may be a bad taste in the mouth, accompanied by an unpleasant smell, which can not be eliminated by regular brushing.
most unfavorable and dangerous form of the disease is a chronic atrophic pharyngitis.In this disease the mucous membrane is almost completely deformed and loses its protective function.In areas of inflammation may be formed dry crusts that cause hysterical bouts of dry cough.When expectoration crusts may appear to depart sputum streaked with blood.It precedes the state subatrophic chronic pharyngitis, which is characterized by incomplete necrosis of the mucous membrane and the partial compensation of the protective function of the lymphoid tissue.In this swollen lymph nodes, which are dense and painful.Very often, chronic atrophic pharyngitis becomes cancer form to form solid tumors in the oropharynx.
Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis in adults
Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis in adults may include a set of clinical signs indicative of the flow of the inflammatory process in the oropharynx.They can be hidden or pronounced in periods of exacerbation.In most cases of chronic pharyngitis symptoms include the following factors:
- constant sore throat without any visible signs of colds (high fever, runny nose, headache and muscle pain, weakness, chills);
- feeling sore and the presence of foreign particles that cause the cough reflex;
- unpleasant smell from the mouth, having a putrid character;
- swallowing can be difficult and cause pain;
- dry cough and continuous, after a bout of throat pain intensifies.
Symptoms and treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults depend largely on the form of pathology.So, when catarrhal type of pathology expressed pain, and appears after the impact of adverse factors.In atrophic pharyngitis pain may be completely absent, but the patient complains of a constant feeling of dryness in the mouth and throat.
On examination, visible foci of inflammation in the back wall of the throat.They can manifest as redness, swelling of the mucous membrane, foci of granulation and atrophy.When atrophic form subatrophic and chronic pharyngitis can be visually determined by the crust and place with hemorrhages on the background of a strong cough reflex.The temperature and blood pressure - normal.peripheral blood picture in the overall analysis does not change.To eliminate cancer histological examination is necessary to pick up on biopsy material.
Exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis in pregnancy
Chronic pharyngitis during pregnancy often progresses already in the early stages.This is due to the restructuring of the immune system of the woman.There is excessive immune response, resulting in enhancement of acute inflammation symptoms may appear.
During exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis may experience the following symptoms:
- severe pain in the throat when swallowing liquids and food;
- fever to subfebrile indicators;
- headache, weakness, dragging sensation in the muscles;
- dry coughing with minimal sputum production;
- enlargement and tenderness regional submandibular lymph nodes.
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis in pregnancy should include mostly local impact methods.This may be gargle, inhalation, rich alkaline water.Antibiotic therapy is prescribed only when indicated under constant observation by the attending physician.
How to treat chronic pharyngitis in adults
Common therapies include the exclusion of pathogenic factors of influence.Requires stopping smoking, with the exception of pollution of the atmosphere surrounding air.It should refrain from inhaling the vapors arising from the application of lacquers, paints and other organic compounds.Food should be soft and finely ground.Drinking and eating should be an acceptable temperature.Useful use of warm milk with honey, alkaline mineral water and juices with a bright orange color.To restore the mucous membrane can be used treatment of sea buckthorn oil, an extract of rose hips.Widely used herbal teas chamomile, rosemary and rosemary for gargling.
If the pathology is associated with heartburn, you need therapy hyperacid gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease.This treatment is best done under the supervision of the gastroenterologist.The need to avoid infection Helicobacter pylori.
Specific treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults
Antibiotic therapy in the treatment of specific chronic pharyngitis in adults is only used in acute pathology.Indications for use of antibacterial agents are hyperthermia and an increase in regional lymph nodes.For a correct choice of the means necessary to swab the throat, followed by seeding and identification of antibiotic sensitivity.Among the broad-spectrum drugs are most often used "Sumamed" 250 mg 1 time per course of treatment, "Azitral" 250 mg 2 times a day for 3 days, "Tsiprolet" 500 mg 2 times a day for 5 days, or"Amoxiclav" 1000 mg 2 times a day for 7 days.
Treatment of chronic pharyngitis in adults includes the compulsory acceptance of antihistamines: "suprastin" 200 mg 1 time per day, "Diazolin" 150 mg 2 times a day, or "pipolfen" 1 tablet morning and evening.They are all appointed for a term of up to 7 days.
take mucolytic drugs are not effective for the elimination of the cough reflex.The advisability of taking drugs that suppress the cough reflex.This "Codelac", "kodterpin" grass Thermopsis, "Libeksin".
sure to rinse appointed every 30 minutes.You can use a solution of baking soda, chamomile teas, special charges.Perhaps lubrication throat Lugol.This drug is currently presented as a spray.
bacteriophages are excellent means of local action.An example is the preparation "Lizobakt" which is assigned to 2 tablets every 4 hours for dissolution in the oral cavity.For topical use can be used "Bioparox", "Kameton", "Imudon", "Geksoral", "IRS-19," "Valium".
the period of exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis in adults for the treatment of sick leave granted for a period of 10 to 14 days.In all this time appointed bed rest with limitation of physical activity.Your doctor may recommend physical therapy action UFO, magnetic therapy, laser irradiation.
Treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis
particular note is the treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis in which there is a high risk of cancer processes.First of all, you need to dispensary observation at the otolaryngologist.At least 1 time per year a biopsy with histological examination of the mucosal cells.
main aspects of the treatment of atrophic chronic pharyngitis include measures aimed at the restoration of the mucosa.Pathogenic factors should be avoided.
appointed promoters and modulators to form a stable immunity.Held regular prophylaxis with antiviral drugs such as "Arbidol", "Lavomax", "Anaferon" and others.
recommended laser irradiation atrophied mucosa.Constantly used sea buckthorn oil, compositions with mummy and the root of ginseng.They all have a stimulating effect on mucosal cells that can recover fully.
consequences of chronic pharyngitis
Finally, the material is worth mentioning how the negative effects of chronic pharyngitis may overtake patients in advanced cases.The most severe complication is a cancer of the larynx, which is preceded by atrophic form of pathology.
Almost all patients with similar diagnosis present an altered state of the immune defense, which is not able to respond adequately to the introduction of disease agents.Often develop concomitant tonsillitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and regional lymphadenitis.There may be candida lesions of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
In the long effects of chronic pharyngitis can be expressed in the development of renal disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis and amyloidosis), the defeat of the heart muscle (myocarditis, heart valve defects, endocarditis), rheumatic fever.